We describe the cloning and analysis of TAF25, a previously uncharacterized yeast gene that encodes a yeast TATA-binding protein-associated factor or yTAF of Mr = 25,000. The gene encoding yTAF25 is a single copy essential gene, and the protein sequence deduced from TAF25 exhibits sequence similarity to a metazoan hTAFII. The results from immunological studies confirm that yTAF25 is a subunit of a large multiprotein TATA-binding protein-yeast TATA-binding protein-associated factor complex that contains a subset of the total number of the yTAFs present in yeast cell extracts. Both genetic and biochemical analyses demonstrate that yTAF25 can interact directly with itself. Transcriptional data show that the activity of the multiprotein complex containing yTAF25 is RNA polymerase II-specific, thus indicating that TAF25 encodes a bona fide yeast RNA polymerase II TAF. Hence the protein encoded by TAF25 has been termed yTAFII25.