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The TATA-binding proteins (TBP) from both human and Drosophila have been shown to exist in various distinct multiprotein complexes that are required, respectively, for transcription by all three RNA polymerases. In contrast, in vitro biochemical analyses have suggested that yeast TBP exists as a monomeric 27-kDa protein free in solution. We have examined the oligomerization state of yeast TBP and report here that yeast TBP, like human and Drosophila TBPs, is also stably associated with other proteins in vitro. Using anti-TBP antibodies we have immunopurified yeast TBP and associated factors (TBP-associated factors or TAFs). When this fraction was analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, polypeptides of approximate relative molecular size ranging from 170 to 60 kDa are prominently represented. Immunoblot analysis revealed that one of these TAFs, TAF70, corresponds to BRF1/TDS4/PCF4, a subunit of transcription factor (TF) IIIB. Furthermore, this highly purified TAF fraction can reconstitute polymerase III transcription when supplemented with purified RNA polymerase III and TFIIIC. Our data indicate that our TAF fraction contains TFIIIB transcription factor activity and that all the subunits of yeast TFIIIB are stably complexed with TBP.