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We have used a combination of fluorescence anisotropy spectroscopy and fluorescence-based native gel electrophoresis methods to examine the effects of the transcription factor IID-specific subunit TAF130p (TAF145p) upon the TATA box DNA binding properties of TATA box-binding protein (TBP). Purified full-length recombinant TAF130p decreases TBP-TATA DNA complex formation at equilibrium by competing directly with DNA for binding to TBP. Interestingly, we have found that full-length TAF130p is capable of binding multiple molecules of TBP with nanomolar binding affinity. The biological implications of these findings are discussed.