Anthracyclines remain among the most widely prescribed and effective anticancer agents. Unfortunately, life-threatening cardiotoxicity continues to compromise their usefulness. Despite more than four decades of investigation, the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for anthracycline cardiotoxicity have not been completely elucidated. In addition, new drugs and combination therapies often exacerbate the toxicity. The First International Workshop on Anthracycline Cardiotoxicity, held in fall 2006, in Como, Italy, focused on the state-of-the-art knowledge and discussed the research needed to address the cardiotoxicity of these drugs. Here, we incorporate these discussions into the framework of a broader review of preclinical and clinical issues.