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In this study, we investigated the role of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in inhibiting interleukin-8 (IL-8)-mediated neutrophil recruitment induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) bacterial supernatant. First, we tested whether DMSO could inhibit IL-8 production induced by PA in human bronchial epithelial (16-HBE) cells in vitro. In these cells, exposure to PA or H2O2 induced IL-8 production dose dependently, an effect that was inhibited by 1% DMSO at both the protein and RNA level. Second, we tested whether DMSO could block the recruitment of neutrophils induced by PA in a bypassed segment of dog trachea in vivo. PA supernatant was placed in the tracheal segment for 6 h in four dogs, and neutrophil recruitment and IL-8 concentrations were measured in the superfusate. DMSO prevented the recruitment of neutrophils and IL-8 production induced by PA time dependently. The results suggest that DMSO may play an anti-inflammatory role in the airway by inhibiting IL-8 production in epithelial cells.