Low-dose computed tomography for high-risk individuals has for the first time demonstrated unequivocally that early detection save lives. The currently accepted screening strategy comes at the cost of a high rate of false positive findings while still missing a large percentage of the cases. Therefore, there is increasing interest in developing strategies to better estimate the risk of an individual to develop lung cancer, to increase the sensitivity of the screening process, to reduce screening costs and to reduce the numbers of individuals harmed by screening and follow-up interventions. New molecular biomarkers candidates show promise to improve lung cancer outcomes. This review discusses the current state of biomarker research in lung cancer screening with the primary focus on risk assessment.