By using flow cytometry, we analyzed myeloid nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) expression in myeloid precursors in bone marrow from patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and control samples from patients undergoing orthopedic procedures. The median percentage of MNDA-dim myeloid precursors in MDS cases was 67.4% (range, 0.7%-97.5%; interquartile range, 44.9%-82.7%) of myeloid cells, with bimodal MNDA expression in most MDS samples. Control samples demonstrated a median MNDA-dim percentage in myeloid precursors of 1.2% (range, 0.2%-13.7%; interquartile range, 0.6%-2.7%), with no bimodal pattern in most samples. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for MNDA-dim percentage in myeloid precursors was 0.96 (P = 9 × 10(-7)). Correlation of MNDA-dim levels with World Health Organization 2008 morphologic diagnoses was not significant (P = .21), but correlation with patient International Prognostic Scoring System scores suggested a trend (P = .07). Flow cytometric assessment of MNDA in myeloid precursors in bone marrow may be useful for the diagnosis of MDS.