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Analyzing molecular biomarkers using blood is an important approach for clinical assessment of malignant glioma. We investigated a molecular proteomic biomarker-based approach for glioblastoma using patients' blood samples. The expression levels of a list of candidate proteins were quantified in plasma and serum samples from two different cohorts of patients with malignant glioma and normal controls. The biological function was studied for one of the identified markers. Additionally, the prognostic significance of protein marker expression was measured by survival analysis. As a result, protein biomarkers associated with malignant glioma were identified from the blood specimens and five of the protein biomarkers were common to both cohorts. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that many of the protein biomarkers identified in peripheral blood specimens were expressed in malignant gliomas. Staining levels for one of the biomarkers, MIP-1α, was found to correlate with WHO grade among invasive gliomas, and we demonstrate that MIP-1α promotes human glioblastoma cell proliferation and migration. Additionally, four prognostic protein biomarkers were identified. In conclusion, we demonstrate that both peripheral blood plasma and serum specimens are highly valuable and complementary to each other in the quest for protein biomarkers of malignant glioma. Sets of novel protein biomarkers were identified that may aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with malignant glioma.