Diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 28 patients were obtained pretreatment, after one cycle, and after completion of all cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). For each patient at each time point, the tumor cell number was estimated using the apparent diffusion coefficient and the extravascular extracellular (v e) and plasma volume (v p) fractions. The proliferation/death rate was obtained using the number of tumor cells from the first two time points in conjunction with the logistic model of tumor growth, which was then used to predict tumor cellularity at the conclusion of NAC. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the predicted and the experimental number of tumor cells measured at the end of NAC was 0.81 (P = .0043). The proliferation rate estimated after the first cycle of therapy was able to separate patients who went on to achieve pathologic complete response from those who did not (P = .021) with a sensitivity and specificity of 82.4% and 72.7%, respectively. These data provide preliminary results indicating that incorporating readily available quantitative MRI data into a simple model of tumor growth can lead to potentially clinically relevant information for predicting an individual patient's response to NAC.