BCX 2798 (4-azido-5-isobutyrylamino-2,3-didehydro-2,3,4,5-tetradeoxy-d-glycero-d-galacto-2-nonulopyranosic acid) effectively inhibited the activities of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) of human parainfluenza viruses (hPIV) in vitro and protected mice from lethal infection with a recombinant Sendai virus whose HN was replaced with that of hPIV-1 (rSeV[hPIV-1HN]) (I. V. Alymova, G. Taylor, T. Takimoto, T. H. Lin., P. Chand, Y. S. Babu, C. Li, X. Xiong, and A. Portner, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:1495-1502, 2004). The ability of BCX 2798 to select drug-resistant variants in vivo was examined. A variant with an Asn-to-Ser mutation at residue 173 (N173S) in HN was recovered from mice after a second passage of rSeV(hPIV-1HN) in the presence of BCX 2798 (10 mg/kg of body weight daily). The N173S mutant remained sensitive to BCX 2798 in neuraminidase inhibition assays but was more than 10,000-fold less sensitive to the compound in hemagglutination inhibition tests than rSeV(hPIV-1HN). Its susceptibility to BCX 2798 in plaque reduction assays was reduced fivefold and did not differ from that of rSeV(hPIV-1HN) in mice. The N173S mutant failed to be efficiently eluted from erythrocytes and released from cells. It demonstrated reduced growth in cell culture and superior growth in mice. The results for gel electrophoresis analysis were consistent with the loss of the N-linked glycan at residue 173 in the mutant. Sequence and structural comparisons revealed that residue 173 on hPIV-1 HN is located close to the region of the second receptor-binding site identified in Newcastle disease virus HN. Our study suggests that the N-linked glycan at residue 173 masks a second receptor-binding site on hPIV-1 HN.