Rosai-Dorfman disease and Langerhans cell histiocytosis are both disorders of accessory immune cells. Two cases have been previously reported of concurrent Langerhans cell histiocytosis and Rosai-Dorfman disease. In this report, we characterize the findings and selected molecular studies in nine additional cases. Histology was reviewed. Immunohistochemical stains were performed on all cases in which slides or blocks were available. A combination of CD1a, S-100, CD3, CD20, langerin, CD68, CD163, CD21, CD35 and CD123 immunohistochemical stains were performed. High-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization was performed on six samples from five cases. In these cases, seven were female and two male, with an average age of 25 years (15 months-59 years). A majority of the cases were identified in lymph node. Areas of Langerhans cell histiocytosis had a typical appearance with the existence of bland 'coffee-bean' nuclei, clear cytoplasm and associated eosinophils. The immunophenotype was typical, including expression of CD1a, S100, CD68 and langerin. In areas of Rosai-Dorfman disease, there was emperipolesis seen in all cases. Cells were intermediate-large in size with large round nuclei and ample clear or pale cytoplasm. The lesional cells were positive for S100, CD68, CD163, without expression of langerin or CD1a. Array comparative genomic hybridization showed gains and/or losses in four of the six samples. One case showed no gains or losses and one additional case showed gains and losses in the Langerhans cell histiocytosis, while no abnormalities were discovered in the Rosai-Dorfman disease component. These findings are comparable to those seen in previous studies of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. We report the clinical and pathologic findings of the combination of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and Rosai-Dorfman disease. Furthermore, we suggest on the basis of evidence from our cases that, when simultaneous, the two entities may be pathophysiologically related.