John Jeffrey Carr
Professor of Radiology, Biomedical Informatics and Cardiovascular Medicine
Last active: 9/11/2017

Interaction between smoking and depressive symptoms with subclinical heart disease in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.

Carroll AJ, Carnethon MR, Liu K, Jacobs DR, Colangelo LA, Stewart JC, Carr JJ, Widome R, Auer R, Hitsman B
Health Psychol. 2017 36 (2): 101-111

PMID: 27736150 · PMCID: PMC5269456 · DOI:10.1037/hea0000425

OBJECTIVE - Evaluate whether smoking exposure and depressive symptoms accumulated over 25 years are synergistically associated with subclinical heart disease, measured by coronary artery calcification (CAC).

METHOD - Participants (baseline: 54.5% women; 51.5% Black; age range = 18-30 years) were followed prospectively from 1985 to 2010 in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Smoking status was queried yearly from Year 0 to Year 25 to compute packyears of smoking exposure. Depressive symptoms were measured on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale every 5 years to compute cumulative scores from Year 5 to Year 25. A three-level multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between cumulative smoking, cumulative depressive symptoms, and their interaction with moderate-risk CAC (score 1-99) and higher-risk CAC (score ≥100) compared with no CAC (score = 0) at Year 25. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral covariates.

RESULTS - Among 3,189 adults, the cumulative Smoking × Depressive Symptoms interaction was not significant for moderate-risk CAC (p = .057), but was significant for higher-risk CAC (p = .001). For adults with a 30-packyear smoking history, average CES-D scores 2, 10, and 16 were, respectively, associated with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) 3.40 (2.36-4.90), 4.82 (3.03-7.66), and 6.25 (3.31-11.83) for higher-risk CAC (all ps < .05).

CONCLUSION - Cumulative smoking exposure and cumulative depressive symptoms have a synergistic association with subclinical heart disease, where higher lifetime smoking exposure and depressive symptoms are associated with greater odds of CAC. (PsycINFO Database Record

(c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

MeSH Terms (12)

Adolescent Adult African Americans Calcinosis Coronary Artery Disease Depression Female Humans Male Risk Factors Smoking Young Adult

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