Changes in select adipose tissue volumes may differentially impact bone mineral density. This study was performed to assess cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between computed tomography-determined visceral (VAT), subcutaneous (SAT), inter-muscular (IMAT), and pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) volumes with respective changes in thoracic vertebral and lumbar vertebral volumetric trabecular bone mineral density (vBMD) in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Generalized linear models were fitted to test relationships between baseline and change in adipose volumes with change in vBMD in 300 African American-Diabetes Heart Study participants; adjustment was performed for age, sex, diabetes duration, study interval, smoking, hypertension, BMI, kidney function, and medications. Participants were 50% female with mean ± SD age 55.1±9.0 years, diabetes duration 10.2±7.2 years, and BMI 34.7±7.7 kg/m2. Over 5.3 ± 1.4 years, mean vBMD decreased in thoracic/lumbar spine, while mean adipose tissue volumes increased in SAT, IMAT, and PAT, but not VAT depots. In fully-adjusted models, changes in lumbar and thoracic vBMD were positively associated with change in SAT (β[SE] 0.045[0.011], p<0.0001; 0.40[0.013], p = 0.002, respectively). Change in thoracic vBMD was positively associated with change in IMAT (p = 0.029) and VAT (p = 0.016); and change in lumbar vBMD positively associated with baseline IMAT (p<0.0001). In contrast, vBMD was not associated with change in PAT. After adjusting for BMI, baseline and change in volumes of select adipose depots were associated with increases in thoracic and lumbar trabecular vBMD in African Americans. Effects of adiposity on trabecular bone appear to be site-specific and related to factors beyond mechanical load.