Non-coding ribonucleic acid (RNA) has without a doubt captured the interest of biomedical researchers. The ability to screen the entire human genome with high-throughput sequencing technology has greatly enhanced the identification, annotation and prediction of the functionality of non-coding RNAs. In this review, we discuss the current landscape of non-coding RNA research and quantitative analysis. Non-coding RNA will be categorized into two major groups by size: long non-coding RNAs and small RNAs. In long non-coding RNA, we discuss regular long non-coding RNA, pseudogenes and circular RNA. In small RNA, we discuss miRNA, transfer RNA, piwi-interacting RNA, small nucleolar RNA, small nuclear RNA, Y RNA, single recognition particle RNA, and 7SK RNA. We elaborate on the origin, detection method, and potential association with disease, putative functional mechanisms, and public resources for these non-coding RNAs. We aim to provide readers with a complete overview of non-coding RNAs and incite additional interest in non-coding RNA research.