Risk factors for symptomatic hyperlactatemia and lactic acidosis among combination antiretroviral therapy-treated adults in Botswana: results from a clinical trial.

Wester CW, Eden SK, Shepherd BE, Bussmann H, Novitsky V, Samuels DC, Hendrickson SL, Winkler CA, O'Brien SJ, Essex M, D'Aquila RT, DeGruttola V, Marlink RG
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012 28 (8): 759-65

PMID: 22540188 · PMCID: PMC3399551 · DOI:10.1089/AID.2011.0303

Nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors are an integral component of combination antiretroviral treatment regimens. However, their ability to inhibit polymerase-γ has been associated with several mitochondrial toxicities, including potentially life-threatening lactic acidosis. A total of 650 antiretroviral-naive adults (69% female) initiated combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and were intensively screened for toxicities including lactic acidosis as part of a 3-year clinical trial in Botswana. Patients were categorized as no lactic acidosis symptoms, minor symptoms but lactate <4.4 mmol/liter, and symptoms with lactate ≥ 4.4 mmol/liter [moderate to severe symptomatic hyperlactatemia (SH) or lactic acidosis (LA)]. Of 650 participants 111 (17.1%) developed symptoms and/or laboratory results suggestive of lactic acidosis and had a serum lactate drawn; 97 (87.4%) of these were female. There were 20 events, 13 having SH and 7 with LA; all 20 (100%) were female (p<0.001). Cox proportional hazard analysis limited to the 451 females revealed that having a higher baseline BMI was predictive for the development of SH/LA [aHR=1.17 per one-unit increase (1.08-1.25), p<0.0001]. Ordered logistic regression performed among all 650 patients revealed that having a lower baseline hemoglobin [aOR=1.28 per one-unit decrease (1.1-1.49), p=0.002] and being randomized to d4T/3TC-based cART [aOR=1.76 relative to ZDV/3TC (1.03-3.01), p=0.04] were predictive of the symptoms and/or the development of SH/LA. cART-treated women in sub-Saharan Africa, especially those having higher body mass indices, should receive additional monitoring for SH/LA. Women presently receiving d4T/3TC-based cART in such settings also warrant more intensive monitoring.

MeSH Terms (13)

Acidosis, Lactic Adult Anti-Retroviral Agents Botswana Drug Therapy, Combination Female Follow-Up Studies HIV Infections Humans Lactic Acid Male Risk Factors Treatment Outcome

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