Triple vortex ring structure in superfluid helium II.

Kivotides D, Barenghi CF, Samuels DC
Science. 2000 290 (5492): 777-9

PMID: 11052935 · DOI:10.1126/science.290.5492.777

Superfluids such as helium II consist of two interpenetrating fluids: the normal fluid and the superfluid. The helium II vortex ring has generally been considered merely as a superfluid object, neglecting any associated motion of the normal fluid. We report a three-dimensional calculation of the coupled motion of the normal-fluid and superfluid components, which shows that the helium II vortex ring consists of a superfluid vortex ring accompanied by two coaxial normal-fluid vortex rings of opposite polarity. The three vortex rings form a coherent, dissipative structure.

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