The Innate Immune Protein S100A9 Protects from T-Helper Cell Type 2-mediated Allergic Airway Inflammation.

Palmer LD, Maloney KN, Boyd KL, Goleniewska AK, Toki S, Maxwell CN, Chazin WJ, Peebles RS, Newcomb DC, Skaar EP
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2019 61 (4): 459-468

PMID: 30943376 · PMCID: PMC6775951 · DOI:10.1165/rcmb.2018-0217OC

Calprotectin is a heterodimer of the proteins S100A8 and S100A9, and it is an abundant innate immune protein associated with inflammation. In humans, calprotectin transcription and protein abundance are associated with asthma and disease severity. However, mechanistic studies in experimental asthma models have been inconclusive, identifying both protective and pathogenic effects of calprotectin. To clarify the role of calprotectin in asthma, calprotectin-deficient and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice were compared in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation. Mice were intranasally challenged with extracts of the clinically relevant allergen, (Alt Ext), or PBS every third day over 9 days. On Day 10, BAL fluid and lung tissue homogenates were harvested and allergic airway inflammation was assessed. Alt Ext challenge induced release of S100A8/S100A9 to the alveolar space and increased protein expression in the alveolar epithelium of WT mice. Compared with WT mice, mice displayed significantly enhanced allergic airway inflammation, including production of IL-13, CCL11, CCL24, serum IgE, eosinophil recruitment, and airway resistance and elastance. In response to Alt Ext, mice accumulated significantly more IL-13IL-5CD4 T-helper type 2 cells. mice also accumulated a significantly lower proportion of CD4 T regulatory (Treg) cells in the lung that had significantly lower expression of CD25. Calprotectin enhanced WT Treg cell suppressive activity . Therefore, this study identifies a role for the innate immune protein, S100A9, in protection from CD4 T-helper type 2 cell hyperinflammation in response to Alt Ext. This protection is mediated, at least in part, by CD4 Treg cell function.

MeSH Terms (23)

Adaptive Immunity Allergens Alternaria Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic Animals Bronchial Hyperreactivity Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Calgranulin A Calgranulin B Cytokines Forkhead Transcription Factors Immunoglobulin E Inflammation Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex Lung Male Mice Mice, Inbred C57BL Mice, Knockout Pulmonary Eosinophilia Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory Th2 Cells

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