The S100 family of EF-hand calcium (Ca(2+))-binding proteins is essential for a wide range of cellular functions. During infection, certain S100 proteins act as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and interact with pattern recognition receptors to modulate inflammatory responses. In addition, these inflammatory S100 proteins have potent antimicrobial properties and are essential components of the immune response to invading pathogens. In this review, we focus on S100 proteins that exhibit antimicrobial properties through the process of metal limitation, termed nutritional immunity, and discuss several recent advances in our understanding of S100 protein-mediated metal sequestration at the site of infection.
© 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.