AIMS - To evaluate the association of serum phosphorus with cardiac structure/function and incident heart failure.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We related serum phosphorus to echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) measurements cross-sectionally, and to incident heart failure prospectively in 3300 participants (mean age 44 years, 51% women) free of heart failure, myocardial infarction, and chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]<60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). Cross-sectionally, serum phosphorus was related positively to LV mass, internal dimensions, and systolic dysfunction. On follow-up (mean 17.4 years), 157 individuals developed heart failure. In models adjusting for established risk factors as time-varying covariates, each mg/dL increment in serum phosphorus was associated with a 1.74-fold risk of heart failure [95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.17-2.59]. Individuals in the highest serum phosphorus quartile experienced a two-fold (95% CI 1.28-3.40) risk of heart failure compared with participants in the lowest quartile. These relations were maintained upon additional adjustment for LV mass/dimensions and systolic dysfunction. In analyses restricted to individuals with eGFR >90 mL/min/1.73 m(2), no proteinuria and serum phosphorus <4.5 mg/dL, the association of serum phosphorus with heart failure remained robust.
CONCLUSION - In our community-based sample, higher serum phosphorus was associated with greater LV mass cross-sectionally, and with an increased risk of heart failure prospectively.