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Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the deadliest diseases, causing ∼2 million deaths annually worldwide. bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only TB vaccine in common use, is effective against disseminated and meningeal TB in young children but is not effective against adult pulmonary TB. T helper 1 (Th1) cells producing interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and Th17 cells producing interleukin-17 (IL-17) play key roles in host protection against TB, whereas Th2 cells producing IL-4 and regulatory T cells (Tregs) facilitate TB disease progression by inhibiting protective Th1 and Th17 responses. Furthermore, the longevity of vaccine efficacy critically depends on the magnitude of long-lasting central memory T (T) cell responses. Hence, immunomodulators that promote T responses of the Th1 and Th17 cell lineages may improve BCG vaccine efficacy. Here, we show that curcumin nanoparticles enhance various antigen-presenting cell (APC) functions, including autophagy, costimulatory activity, and the production of inflammatory cytokines and other mediators. We further show that curcumin nanoparticles enhance the capacity of BCG to induce T cells of the Th1 and Th17 lineages, which augments host protection against TB infection. Thus, curcumin nanoparticles hold promise for enhancing the efficacy of TB vaccines.
Copyright © 2019 Ahmad et al.