CD1 molecules present a variety of microbial glycolipids and self-glycolipids to T cells, but their potential role in humoral responses to glycolipid Ags remains to be established. To address this issue directly, we used GM1/GD1a-deficient mice, which, upon immunization with heat-killed Campylobacter jejuni, develop Guillain-Barré syndrome-associated IgG Abs against the GM1/GD1a sugar chain epitopes of bacterial lipo-oligosaccharides (LOS). Our results showed that anti-ganglioside Abs of the IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG3 isotypes were produced in the absence of group 2 CD1 (CD1d) expression. Unlike mouse and human group 2 CD1 molecules that specifically bound LOS, none of the group 1 CD1 molecules (CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c in humans) were capable of interacting with LOS. Thus, these results indicate CD1-independent pathways for anti-ganglioside Ab production.