Persistently low blood retinol levels during and after parenteral feeding of very low birth weight infants: examination of losses into intravenous administration sets and a method of prevention by addition to a lipid emulsion.

Greene HL, Phillips BL, Franck L, Fillmore CM, Said HM, Murrell JE, Moore ME, Briggs R
Pediatrics. 1987 79 (6): 894-900

PMID: 3108847

Very low birth weight infants have little storage of hepatic retinol and are, therefore, highly dependent upon an exogenous supply. The recent association between low serum retinol level and bronchopulmonary dysplasia and the persistently low serum levels of retinol during total parenteral nutrition prompted a prospective study to evaluate serial changes in serum retinol levels during 1 month of total parenteral nutrition (retinol dose 455 micrograms/d) and again during 1 month of total enteral feeding (retinol dose 200 to 300 micrograms/d) in the same infants. Infants were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of infants weighing less than 1,000 g (n = 24) and group 2 consisted of infants weighing 1,000 to 1,500 g (n = 17). Although initial mean levels of retinol were similar in both groups (14.8 +/- 0.9 and 13.5 +/- 0.7 micrograms/dL), there was wide variation between infants. In group 1 infants, there was a significant (P less than .01) decline in retinol level by the second week of life (to 9.2 +/- 1 micrograms/dL), which persisted during total parenteral nutrition, but increased to 13.4 +/- 2 after 1 week of enteral feeding. This level was maintained throughout enteral feeding. In group 2 infants, there was no significant change in serum retinol level throughout the study. During total parenteral nutrition, several infants had retinol levels below 10 micrograms/dL, a level associated with signs of retinol deficiency in older children. Because losses of retinol are known to occur in smaller volume total parenteral nutrition solutions, it was speculated that losses of retinol in our patients were due to retinol losses in the total parenteral nutrition delivery system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

MeSH Terms (11)

Drug Stability Enteral Nutrition Fat Emulsions, Intravenous Food, Formulated Humans Infant, Low Birth Weight Infant, Newborn Infant Food Parenteral Nutrition, Total Prospective Studies Vitamin A

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