OBJECTIVE - To describe adolescents' sleep on school and weekend nights using multiple methods and to examine the links between sleep variability, quality, and duration with diabetes indicators.
METHODS - Adolescents with type 1 diabetes (N = 65, mean age = 15.0, 52.3% female, mean HbA1c = 8.9% or 74 mmol/mol) wore an actigraph and kept daily diaries recording sleep, activities, and blood glucose monitoring (BGM) habits for at least 7 days. Average daily BGM and blood glucose (BG) levels were obtained through glucometer downloads. HbA1c was obtained as part of clinic visits. Adolescents completed a sleep quality questionnaire (Pittsburgh sleep quality index [PSQI]), and adolescents and caregivers reported on adherence to diabetes treatment.
RESULTS - Adolescents reported a mean PSQI global score of 5.37, which is above the clinical cutoff for poor sleep quality. Actigraphy data revealed that mean adolescent total sleep time was 6:54 (h:min), and participants slept more on weekend nights than on school nights (P < .001). Additionally, variability in sleep duration was significantly related to HbA1c, frequency of BGM, and average BG. Total sleep time and self-reported sleep quality were not significantly associated with adherence or glycemic control.
CONCLUSIONS - Few adolescents with type 1 diabetes met recommendations for sleep duration, and many reported poor sleep quality. We identified significant associations between variability in sleep duration with poorer glycemic control and less frequent BGM, supporting the need to consider sleep patterns as a modifiable factor that may affect adherence and glycemic control.
© 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.