The Childhood Adaptation Model to Chronic Illness: Diabetes Mellitus was developed to identify factors that influence childhood adaptation to type 1 diabetes (T1D). Since this model was proposed, considerable research has been completed. The purpose of this article is to update the model on childhood adaptation to T1D using research conducted since the original model was proposed. The framework suggests that, in individuals and families, characteristics such as age and socioeconomic status as well as the individuals' and families' responses (self-management, coping, self-efficacy, family functioning, social competence) influence the level of adaptation; in children with T1D, characteristics such as treatment modality (pump vs injections) and psychosocial responses (depressive symptoms and anxiety) also influence the level of adaptation. Adaptation has both physiologic (metabolic control) and psychosocial (Quality of Life [QOL]) components. This revised model provides greater specificity to the factors that influence adaptation to chronic illness in children. Research and clinical implications are discussed.
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