This article considers the role of temperament in the development of depression during childhood and adolescence. The features of depression in young people and aspects of temperament that are most relevant to depression are briefly reviewed. Studies that have tested the direct and indirect associations of temperament and depressive symptoms in young people are summarized. Evidence suggests that the temperamental characteristics of positive and negative emotionality, and to a lesser extent attentional control, are implicated in depressive symptoms. The role of stress, stress responses, and coping are then examined in the association of temperament and depression. Temperamental characteristics may moderate and be moderated by stress responses and coping in their effects on depression. Directions for future research are highlighted.