Utilizing Untargeted Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry To Profile Changes in the Gut Metabolome Following Biliary Diversion Surgery.

Poland JC, Schrimpe-Rutledge AC, Sherrod SD, Flynn CR, McLean JA
Anal Chem. 2019 91 (22): 14417-14423

PMID: 31573190 · PMCID: PMC7076733 · DOI:10.1021/acs.analchem.9b02924

Obesity and obesity-related disorders are a global epidemic affecting over 10% of the world's population. Treatment of these diseases has become increasingly challenging and expensive. The most effective and durable treatment for Class III obesity (body mass index ≥35 kg/m) is bariatric surgery, namely, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy. These procedures are associated with increased circulating bile acids, molecules that not only facilitate intestinal fat absorption but are also potent hormones regulating numerous metabolic pathways. We recently reported on a novel surgical procedure in mice, termed distal gallbladder bile diversion to the ileum (GB-IL), that emulates the altered bile flow after RYGB without other manipulations of gastrointestinal anatomy. GB-IL improves oral glucose tolerance in mice made obese with high-fat diet. This is accompanied by fat malabsorption and weight loss, which complicates studying the role of elevated circulating bile acids in metabolic control. A less aggressive surgery in which the gallbladder bile is diverted to the proximal ileum, termed GB-IL, also improves glucose control but is not accompanied by fat malabsorption. To better understand the differential effects achieved by these bile diversion procedures, an untargeted ultraperformance liquid chromatography-ion mobility-mass spectrometry (UPLC-IM-MS) method was optimized for fecal samples derived from mice that have undergone bile diversion surgery. Utilizing the UPLC-IM-MS method, we were able to identify dysregulation of bile acids, short-chain fatty acids, and cholesterol derivatives that contribute to the differential metabolism resulting from these surgeries.

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