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Cyst infection in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is often refractory to therapy, in part because of the limited entry of commonly used antibiotics into cyst fluid. To study the efficacy of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in cyst infection, cyst fluid was obtained by percutaneous aspiration or at surgery from eight patients with ADPKD receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Cysts were categorized as nongradient or gradient by cyst-fluid sodium concentration. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole concentrations within cysts were determined and cyst fluid inhibitory and bactericidal titers were assessed in vitro against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Streptococcus fecalis. The mean cyst fluid trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole concentrations were 15.2 micrograms/ml and 42.5 micrograms/ml, respectively. Preferential accumulation of trimethoprim was observed in gradient cysts, exceeding serum levels more than eightfold. Sulfamethoxazole penetrated cysts to a lesser extent, with concentrations ranging from 10 to 70 percent of the serum level. Cyst fluid sampled prior to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole administration (control) demonstrated no antibacterial activity, while cyst fluid inhibitory and bactericidal titers following antibiotic administration were 1:32 or greater in most instances. These studies indicate that trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is likely to be efficacious in the treatment of cyst infection in polycystic kidneys.