Prior research has shown that, controlling for age and diabetes, patients with end-stage renal disease in Europe generally have better rates of survival than do ESRD patients in the U.S. This analysis compares the dose of hemodialysis prescription in the two regions. Based on the European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry (EDTA), the U.S. Renal Data System (USRDS), and other sources, European and U.S. ESRD patients were compared by demographic and anthropometric characteristics, dialyzer characteristics, and duration of dialysis treatment times. Average body weight and body mass indices were found to be similar for the ESRD populations of the two societies, suggesting the same overall requirements for dialysis therapy. During 1986 to 1988, dialyzers selected in Europe had a larger surface area by at least 20 percent compared to those selected in the U.S. In addition, duration of hemodialysis treatment times were on average 23.5% longer for EDTA patients. Dialyzer blood flows were not available for EDTA patients, but if EDTA blood flows resemble U.S. practices, total urea clearance per week was at least 29% higher in Europe than in the U.S. Combining similar patient characteristics with substantially greater total urea clearance per week, the hemodialysis prescription in Europe was substantially higher than in the U.S. for the time period of this study.