Uremic malnutrition and chronic inflammation are important comorbid conditions that predict poor clinical outcome in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. These conditions are also closely associated with cardiovascular disease, the major cause of death in ESRD patients. A pathophysiologic link between malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis has been proposed in this patient population. Indeed, multiple lines of evidence suggest that chronic inflammation can predispose ESRD patients to a catabolic and atherogenic state. Malnutrition can also result from chronic inflammation and can accelerate the progression of cardiovascular disease. Whereas a single common etiology has not been identified in this complex process, nutritional and anti-inflammatory interventions provide potential treatment options to counter the high mortality and morbidity in ESRD patients.