Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a 53-amino acid polypeptide that is known to produce a number of biologic effects both in vitro and in vivo. High concentrations of EGF are found in urine, and high concentrations of prepro-EGF mRNA have been detected in kidney, localized to thick ascending limb of Henle (TALH) and distal convoluted tubule. Specific high-affinity EGF receptors have been demonstrated in mesangial cells, proximal tubule, and cortical and inner medullary collecting duct, as well as in medullary interstitial cells. In the proximal tubule, EGF binding and EGF receptor-associated tyrosine kinase activity are localized to basolateral membrane, and functional responses in collecting duct are observed only with basolateral administration of EGF. A number of renal responses to administration of EGF have recently been described, including modulation of glomerular hemodynamics, renal metabolism, tubular transport functions, and eicosanoid synthesis. In addition, EGF has been shown to be a potent mitogen in vitro for a variety of cell types in the kidney and may be an important mediator of renal repair following injury.