Experiments were conducted to determine if the 37 kDa protein (37K) of Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) is a virus movement protein. First, evidence was obtained that indicated that 37K has the ability to move from cell to cell, similar to other virus movement proteins (MPs). Plasmids containing the GFP gene fused to the SBWMV 37K, the coat protein (CP) or the CP readthrough domain (RT) ORFs were delivered by biolistic bombardment to wheat and tobacco leaves. In wheat leaves, cell-to-cell movement of GFP-37K was observed, while GFP, GFP-CP and GFP-RT accumulated primarily in single cells. All fusion proteins accumulated in single cells in tobacco leaves. Thus, cell-to-cell movement is a specific property of 37K that occurs in SBWMV host plants. Subcellular accumulation of 37K was studied using SBWMV-infected and 37K-expressing transgenic wheat. In infected and transgenic wheat leaves, 37K accumulated in the cell wall, similar to other virus MPs, and in aggregates in the cytoplasm. Phylogenetic studies were conducted to compare the furovirus 37K proteins with members of the 30K superfamily of virus MPs. Amino acid sequences of the furovirus 37K proteins were aligned with the MPs from 43 representative viruses. The furovirus 37K proteins were found to reside in a clade that also contained the dianthovirus MPs. Combined, these data suggest that SBWMV 37K is probably a virus MP.