We have discovered a novel canine hereditary bleeding disorder with the characteristic features of Scott syndrome, a rare defect of platelet procoagulant activity. Affected dogs were from a single, inbred colony and experienced clinical signs of epistaxis, hyphema, intramuscular hematoma, and prolonged bleeding with cutaneous bruising after surgery. The hemostatic abnormalities identified were restricted to tests of platelet procoagulant activity, whereas platelet count, platelet morphology under light microscopy, bleeding time, clot retraction, and platelet aggregation and secretion in response to thrombin, collagen, and adenosine diphosphate stimulation were all within normal limits. Washed platelets from the affected dogs demonstrated approximately twice normal clotting times in a platelet factor 3 availability assay and, in a prothrombinase assay, generated only background levels of thrombin in response to calcium ionophore, thrombin, or combined thrombin plus collagen stimulation. While platelet phospholipid content was normal, flow cytometric analyses revealed diminished phosphatidylserine exposure and a failure of microvesiculation in response to calcium ionophore, thrombin, and collagen stimulation. Pedigree studies indicate a likely homozygous recessive inheritance pattern of the defect. These findings confirm the importance of platelet procoagulant activity for in vivo hemostasis and provide a large animal model for studying agonist-induced signal transduction, calcium mobilization, and effector pathways involved in the late platelet response of transmembrane phospholipid movement and membrane vesiculation.