Efficiency of compensation for absence of fall in insulin during exercise.

Wasserman DH, Lacy DB, Colburn CA, Bracy D, Cherrington AD
Am J Physiol. 1991 261 (5 Pt 1): E587-97

PMID: 1951683 · DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.1991.261.5.E587

To assess compensation for the absence of the exercise-induced fall in insulin, dogs underwent 150 min of treadmill exercise with insulin infused intraportally with (IC + Glc; n = 7) or without (IC; n = 6) glucose clamped. Glucose production (Ra), gluconeogenic conversion (Conv), and intrahepatic gluconeogenic efficiency (Eff) were assessed with tracers ([3H]glucose, [14C]alanine) and arteriovenous differences. Glucose fell by 6 +/- 4 and 11 +/- 2 mg/dl at 30 min of exercise and by 8 +/- 2 and 36 +/- 5 mg/dl at 150 min in IC + Glc and IC. Glucagon rose by 16 +/- 8 and 55 +/- 17 pg/ml by 30 min of exercise and by 18 +/- 6 and 93 +/- 22 pg/ml by 150 min in IC + Glc and IC. Norepinephrine was unaffected by the glycemic decrement in IC, whereas epinephrine was greater for the last 60 min of exercise. Ra rose by an average of 0.9 +/- 0.3 and 3.7 +/- 0.2 mg.kg-1.min-1 in IC + Glc and IC. Conv rose by 91 +/- 39 and 325 +/- 75% in IC + Glc and IC at 150 min of exercise, and Eff rose by 87 +/- 57 and 358 +/- 99%. The compensatory Ra exceeded the maximum possible gluconeogenic rate, indicating that glycogenolysis was also stimulated. In summary, in the absence of the exercise-induced fall in insulin 1) glycemia falls approximately fourfold faster; 2) minimal glycemic decrements elicit a large and rapid increase in Ra; 3) this compensation involves a glycogenolytic and gluconeogenic response; 4) the accelerated gluconeogenic rate is due, in large part, to stimulation of Eff; and 5) the compensatory Ra is likely mediated, in part, by glucagon. Hence, although the fall in insulin is essential for normal glucoregulation during exercise, a highly sensitive counterregulatory response prevents severe hypoglycemia. The remarkable sensitivity of the liver to small changes in glycemia implies that the normal coupling of the exercise-induced increase in Ra to glucose utilization may be signaled by small, nearly imperceptible changes in glucose.

MeSH Terms (17)

Adaptation, Physiological Alanine Animals Arteries Catecholamines Dogs Fatty Acids, Nonesterified Glucagon Gluconeogenesis Glycerol Hydrocortisone Insulin Kinetics Lactates Lactic Acid Liver Physical Exertion

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