Hierarchy in somatic mutations arising during genomic evolution and progression of follicular lymphoma.

Green MR, Gentles AJ, Nair RV, Irish JM, Kihira S, Liu CL, Kela I, Hopmans ES, Myklebust JH, Ji H, Plevritis SK, Levy R, Alizadeh AA
Blood. 2013 121 (9): 1604-11

PMID: 23297126 · PMCID: PMC3587323 · DOI:10.1182/blood-2012-09-457283

Follicular lymphoma (FL) is currently incurable using conventional chemotherapy or immunotherapy regimes, compelling new strategies. Advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies that can reveal oncogenic pathways have stimulated interest in tailoring therapies toward actionable somatic mutations. However, for mutation-directed therapies to be most effective, the mutations must be uniformly present in evolved tumor cells as well as in the self-renewing tumor-cell precursors. Here, we show striking intratumoral clonal diversity within FL tumors in the representation of mutations in the majority of genes as revealed by whole exome sequencing of subpopulations. This diversity captures a clonal hierarchy, resolved using immunoglobulin somatic mutations and IGH-BCL2 translocations as a frame of reference and by comparing diagnosis and relapse tumor pairs, allowing us to distinguish early versus late genetic eventsduring lymphomagenesis. We provide evidence that IGH-BCL2 translocations and CREBBP mutations are early events, whereas MLL2 and TNFRSF14 mutations probably represent late events during disease evolution. These observations provide insight into which of the genetic lesions represent suitable candidates for targeted therapies.

MeSH Terms (15)

Clonal Evolution Clone Cells Disease Progression DNA, Neoplasm Exome Gene Frequency Genome, Human High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing Humans Immunophenotyping Lymphoma, Follicular Mutation Mutation Rate Polymerase Chain Reaction Recurrence

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