BACKGROUND - A recent study of familial and early onset prostate cancer reported a recurrent rare germline mutation of HOXB13 among men of European descent. The gene resides within the 17q21 hereditary prostate cancer linkage interval.
METHODS - We evaluated the G84E germline mutation (rs138213197) of HOXB13 in a case-control study of familial prostate cancer at Vanderbilt University (Nashville, TN) to independently evaluate the association of the mutation with familial prostate cancer. We genotyped 928 familial prostate cancer probands and 930 control probands without a personal or family history of prostate cancer.
RESULTS - Our study confirmed the association between the G84E mutation of HOXB13 and risk of prostate cancer among subjects of European descent. We observed the mutation in 16 familial cases and in two controls, each as heterozygotes. The odds ratio (OR) for prostate cancer was 7.9 [95% confidence interval, (CI) 1.8-34.5, P = 0.0062] among carriers of the mutation. The carrier rate was 1.9% among all familial case probands and 2.7% among probands of pedigrees with ≥3 affected. In a separate case series of 268 probands of European descent with no additional family history of prostate cancer, the carrier rate was 1.5%.
CONCLUSIONS - The germline mutation G84E of HOXB13 is a rare but recurrent mutation associated with elevated risk of prostate cancer in men of European descent, with an effect size that is greater than observed for previously validated risk variants of genome wide association studies.
IMPACT - This study independently confirms the association of a germline HOXB13 mutation with familial prostate cancer.