James Crowe
Faculty Member
Last active: 3/31/2020

New-Onset Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Is Initiated by Insulin Resistance, Not Immunosuppressive Medications.

Engelhardt BG, Savani U, Jung DK, Powers AC, Jagasia M, Chen H, Winnick JJ, Tamboli RA, Crowe JE, Abumrad NN
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2019 25 (6): 1225-1231

PMID: 30738170 · PMCID: PMC6559863 · DOI:10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.02.001

New-onset post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) occurs frequently after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). Although calcineurin inhibitors and corticosteroids are assumed to be the cause for hyperglycemia, patients developing PTDM have elevated fasting C-peptide levels before HCT and before immunosuppressive medications. To determine if PTDM results from established insulin resistance present before transplant, we performed oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) and measured whole body, peripheral, and hepatic insulin sensitivity with euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps before and 90 days after HLA-identical sibling donor HCT in 20 patients without pretransplant diabetes. HCT recipients were prospectively followed for the development of new-onset PTDM defined as a weekly fasting blood glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL or random blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL. During the first 100 days all patients received calcineurin inhibitors, and 11 individuals (55%) were prospectively diagnosed with new-onset PTDM. PTDM diagnosis preceded corticosteroid treatment. During the pretransplant OGTT, elevated fasting (87 mg/dL versus 101 mg/dL; P = .005) but not 2-hour postprandial glucose levels predicted PTDM diagnosis (P = .648). In response to insulin infusion during the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, patients developing PTDM had lower whole body glucose utilization (P = .047) and decreased peripheral/skeletal muscle uptake (P = .031) before and after transplant, respectively, when compared with non-PTDM patients. Hepatic insulin sensitivity did not differ. Survival was decreased in PTDM patients (2-year estimate, 55% versus 100%; P = .039). Insulin resistance before HCT is a risk factor for PTDM independent of immunosuppression. Fasting pretransplant glucose levels identified PTDM susceptibility, and peripheral insulin resistance could be targeted for prevention and treatment of PTDM after HCT.

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. All rights reserved.

MeSH Terms (10)

Adult Diabetes Mellitus Female Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Humans Insulin Resistance Male Middle Aged Transplantation, Homologous Transplantation Conditioning

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