The electrophilic lipid oxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) reacts with proteins to form covalent adducts, and this damage has been implicated in pathologies associated with oxidative stress. HNE adduction of blood proteins, such as human serum albumin (HSA), yields adducts that may serve as markers of oxidative stress in vivo. We used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) and the P-Mod algorithm to map the sites of 10 adducts formed by reaction of HNE with HSA in vitro. The detected adducts included Michael adducts formed at histidine and lysine residues. The selectivity of HNE in competing adduction reactions was evaluated by analysis of kinetics for HNE Michael adduction at six targeted HSA histidine residues. Reaction kinetics were analyzed by selected reaction monitoring in LC-MS-MS using stable isotope tagging with phenyl isocyanate. Rate constants ranged over 4 orders of magnitude, with the order of reactivity being H242 > H510 > H67 > H367 > H247 approximately K233. The most reactive target, H242, is located in a fatty acid- and drug binding cavity in subdomain IIa of HSA and appears to be a hot-spot for HNE modification. Analysis of adduction kinetics together with HSA structure and target residue pK(a) values suggest that location in the hydrophobic binding cavity and low predicted pK(a) of H242 account for its high reactivity toward HNE. H242 adducts may be preferred products of adduction by lipophilic electrophiles and may comprise a family of biomarkers for oxidative stress.