Our previous studies have focused on a family of Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear pore complex (NPC) proteins that contain domains composed of repetitive tetrapeptide glycine-leucine-phenylalanine-glycine (GLFG) motifs. We have previously shown that the GLFG regions of Nup116p and Nup100p directly bind the karyopherin transport factor Kap95p during nuclear protein import. In this report, we have further investigated potential roles for the GLFG region in mRNA export. The subcellular localizations of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged mRNA transport factors were individually examined in yeast cells overexpressing the Nup116-GLFG region. The essential mRNA export factors Mex67-GFP, Mtr2-GFP, and Dbp5-GFP accumulated in the nucleus. In contrast, the localizations of Gle1-GFP and Gle2-GFP remained predominantly associated with the NPC, as in wild type cells. The localization of Kap95p was also not perturbed with GLFG overexpression. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments from yeast cell lysates resulted in the isolation of a Mex67p-Nup116p complex. Soluble binding assays with bacterially expressed recombinant proteins confirmed a direct interaction between Mex67p and the Nup116-GLFG or Nup100-GLFG regions. Mtr2p was not required for in vitro binding of Mex67p to the GLFG region. To map the Nup116-GLFG subregion(s) required for Kap95p and/or Mex67p association, yeast two-hybrid analysis was used. Of the 33 Nup116-GLFG repeats that compose the domain, a central subregion of nine GLFG repeats was sufficient for binding either Kap95p or Mex67p. Interestingly, the first 12 repeats from the full-length region only had a positive interaction with Mex67p, whereas the last 12 were only positive with Kap95p. Thus, the GLFG domain may have the capacity to bind both karyopherins and an mRNA export factor simultaneously. Taken together, our in vivo and in vitro results define an essential role for a direct Mex67p-GLFG interaction during mRNA export.