Despite the discovery more than 15 years ago that patients with hereditary pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) inherit BMP type 2 receptor ( BMPR2) mutations, it is still unclear how these mutations cause disease. In part, this is attributable to the rarity of HPAH and difficulty obtaining tissue samples from patients with early disease. However, in addition, limitations to the approaches used to study the effects of BMPR2 mutations on the pulmonary vasculature have restricted our ability to determine how individual mutations give rise to progressive pulmonary vascular pathology in HPAH. The importance of understanding the mechanisms by which BMPR2 mutations cause disease in patients with HPAH is underscored by evidence that there is reduced BMPR2 expression in patients with other, more common, non-hereditary form of PAH, and that restoration of BMPR2 expression reverses established disease in experimental models of pulmonary hypertension. In this paper, we focus on the effects on endothelial function. We discuss some of the controversies and challenges that have faced investigators exploring the role of BMPR2 mutations in HPAH, focusing specifically on the effects different BMPR2 mutation have on endothelial function, and whether there are qualitative differences between different BMPR2 mutations. We discuss evidence that BMPR2 signaling regulates a number of responses that may account for endothelial abnormalities in HPAH and summarize limitations of the models that are used to study these effects. Finally, we discuss evidence that BMPR2-dependent effects on endothelial metabolism provides a unifying explanation for the many of the BMPR2 mutation-dependent effects that have been described in patients with HPAH.