The effects of chronic amiodarone treatment on several thyroid and cardiac function parameters were studied in 50 euthyroid patients with refractory ventricular arrhythmias, divided in responders and nonresponders according to their sensitivity to the antiarrhythmic action of the drug. No differences in the severity of cardiac disease and blood amiodarone concentrations were found in the two groups. Amiodarone induced a significant inhibition of peripheral T4 monodeiodination, more pronounced in responders compared to nonresponders. On the contrary, only in responsive patients, elevated basal and TRH-stimulated TSH levels were observed (despite serum T3 levels were not different from those in nonresponders) and the indirect indices of cardiac performance, particularly the systolic time intervals, fell in a range usually observed in the hypothyroid states. These findings suggest that amiodarone, besides the well-known inhibition of T4 to T3 conversion, also induces a partial resistance to the thyroid hormones, which is probably involved in the therapeutical effectiveness of the drug.