Transcription factors of the acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)/polyoma enhancer-binding protein (PEBP2alpha)/core-binding factor alpha (CBFA) class are key transactivators of tissue-specific genes of the hematopoietic and bone lineages. AML-1/PEBP2alphaB/CBFA2 proteins participating in transcription are associated with the nuclear matrix. This association is solely dependent on a highly conserved C-terminal protein segment, designated the nuclear matrix targeting signal (NMTS). The NMTS of AML-1 is physically distinct from the nuclear localization signal, operates autonomously, and supports transactivation. Our data indicate that the related AML-3 and AML-2 proteins are also targeted to the nuclear matrix in situ by analogous C-terminal domains. Here we report the first crystal structure of an NMTS in an AML-1 segment fused to glutathione S-transferase. The model of the NMTS consists of two loops connected by a flexible U-shaped peptide chain.