Mark Denison
Last active: 2/22/2016

Profile

The Denison Lab studies the coronaviruses, a family of plus-strand RNA viruses that cause important infections in many animals and colds in humans. A new coronavirus recently has been identified as the cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The Denison laboratory studies the model coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) to understand the replication, cell biology, and protein functions of coronaviruses. The laboratory uses biochemical and genetic approaches, including the recent introduction of reverse genetic approaches, to define the specific functions of replicase proteins in the formation and function of viral replication complexes. In addition, the laboratory has a program to define the replication of the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and develop virus mutants as live virus vaccine candidates. The Denison laboratory has an active training program for students and postdoctoral fellows to develop new investigators in viral cell biology, molecular biology, and genetics. .

Publications

The following timeline graph is generated from all co-authored publications.

Featured publications are shown below:

  1. Evaluation of candidate vaccine approaches for MERS-CoV. Wang L, Shi W, Joyce MG, Modjarrad K, Zhang Y, Leung K, Lees CR, Zhou T, Yassine HM, Kanekiyo M, Yang ZY, Chen X, Becker MM, Freeman M, Vogel L, Johnson JC, Olinger G, Todd JP, Bagci U, Solomon J, Mollura DJ, Hensley L, Jahrling P, Denison MR, Rao SS, Subbarao K, Kwong PD, Mascola JR, Kong WP, Graham BS (2015) Nat Commun : 7712
    › Primary publication · 26218507 (PubMed) · PMC4525294 (PubMed Central)
  2. Mutations across murine hepatitis virus nsp4 alter virus fitness and membrane modifications. Beachboard DC, Anderson-Daniels JM, Denison MR (2015) J Virol 89(4): 2080-9
    › Primary publication · 25473044 (PubMed) · PMC4338892 (PubMed Central)
  3. Novel poxvirus infection in 2 patients from the United States. Osadebe LU, Manthiram K, McCollum AM, Li Y, Emerson GL, Gallardo-Romero NF, Doty JB, Wilkins K, Zhao H, Drew CP, Metcalfe MG, Goldsmith CS, Muehlenbachs A, Googe PB, Dunn J, Duenckel T, Henderson H, Carroll DS, Zaki SR, Denison MR, Reynolds MG, Damon IK (2015) Clin Infect Dis 60(2): 195-202
    › Primary publication · 25301210 (PubMed) · PMC5854477 (PubMed Central)
  4. Coronaviruses induce entry-independent, continuous macropinocytosis. Freeman MC, Peek CT, Becker MM, Smith EC, Denison MR (2014) MBio 5(4): e01340-14
    › Primary publication · 25096879 (PubMed) · PMC4128357 (PubMed Central)
  5. A mouse model for Betacoronavirus subgroup 2c using a bat coronavirus strain HKU5 variant. Agnihothram S, Yount BL, Donaldson EF, Huynh J, Menachery VD, Gralinski LE, Graham RL, Becker MM, Tomar S, Scobey TD, Osswald HL, Whitmore A, Gopal R, Ghosh AK, Mesecar A, Zambon M, Heise M, Denison MR, Baric RS (2014) MBio 5(2): e00047-14
    › Primary publication · 24667706 (PubMed) · PMC3977350 (PubMed Central)
  6. Coronavirus replicase-reporter fusions provide quantitative analysis of replication and replication complex formation. Freeman MC, Graham RL, Lu X, Peek CT, Denison MR (2014) J Virol 88(10): 5319-27
    › Primary publication · 24623413 (PubMed) · PMC4019139 (PubMed Central)
  7. Coronaviruses as DNA wannabes: a new model for the regulation of RNA virus replication fidelity. Smith EC, Denison MR (2013) PLoS Pathog 9(12): e1003760
    › Primary publication · 24348241 (PubMed) · PMC3857799 (PubMed Central)
  8. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus not detected in children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness in Amman, Jordan, March 2010 to September 2012. Khuri-Bulos N, Payne DC, Lu X, Erdman D, Wang L, Faouri S, Shehabi A, Johnson M, Becker MM, Denison MR, Williams JV, Halasa NB (2014) Clin Microbiol Infect 20(7): 678-82
    › Primary publication · 24313317 (PubMed) · PMC4618562 (PubMed Central)
  9. Evaluation of serologic and antigenic relationships between middle eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus and other coronaviruses to develop vaccine platforms for the rapid response to emerging coronaviruses. Agnihothram S, Gopal R, Yount BL, Donaldson EF, Menachery VD, Graham RL, Scobey TD, Gralinski LE, Denison MR, Zambon M, Baric RS (2014) J Infect Dis 209(7): 995-1006
    › Primary publication · 24253287 (PubMed) · PMC3952667 (PubMed Central)
  10. Chimeric exchange of coronavirus nsp5 proteases (3CLpro) identifies common and divergent regulatory determinants of protease activity. Stobart CC, Sexton NR, Munjal H, Lu X, Molland KL, Tomar S, Mesecar AD, Denison MR (2013) J Virol 87(23): 12611-8
    › Primary publication · 24027335 (PubMed) · PMC3838113 (PubMed Central)
  11. Coronaviruses lacking exoribonuclease activity are susceptible to lethal mutagenesis: evidence for proofreading and potential therapeutics. Smith EC, Blanc H, Surdel MC, Vignuzzi M, Denison MR (2013) PLoS Pathog 9(8): e1003565
    › Primary publication · 23966862 (PubMed) · PMC3744431 (PubMed Central)
  12. A live, impaired-fidelity coronavirus vaccine protects in an aged, immunocompromised mouse model of lethal disease. Graham RL, Becker MM, Eckerle LD, Bolles M, Denison MR, Baric RS (2012) Nat Med 18(12): 1820-6
    › Primary publication · 23142821 (PubMed) · PMC3518599 (PubMed Central)
  13. Murine hepatitis virus nsp4 N258T mutants are not temperature-sensitive. Beachboard DC, Lu X, Baker SC, Denison MR (2013) Virology 435(2): 210-3
    › Primary publication · 23099203 (PubMed) · PMC3804408 (PubMed Central)
  14. Implications of altered replication fidelity on the evolution and pathogenesis of coronaviruses. Smith EC, Denison MR (2012) Curr Opin Virol 2(5): 519-24
    › Primary publication · 22857992 (PubMed)
  15. Temperature-sensitive mutants and revertants in the coronavirus nonstructural protein 5 protease (3CLpro) define residues involved in long-distance communication and regulation of protease activity. Stobart CC, Lee AS, Lu X, Denison MR (2012) J Virol 86(9): 4801-10
    › Primary publication · 22345451 (PubMed) · PMC3347385 (PubMed Central)
  16. Coronaviruses: an RNA proofreading machine regulates replication fidelity and diversity. Denison MR, Graham RL, Donaldson EF, Eckerle LD, Baric RS (2011) RNA Biol 8(2): 270-9
    › Primary publication · 21593585 (PubMed) · PMC3127101 (PubMed Central)
  17. Distinct patterns of IFITM-mediated restriction of filoviruses, SARS coronavirus, and influenza A virus. Huang IC, Bailey CC, Weyer JL, Radoshitzky SR, Becker MM, Chiang JJ, Brass AL, Ahmed AA, Chi X, Dong L, Longobardi LE, Boltz D, Kuhn JH, Elledge SJ, Bavari S, Denison MR, Choe H, Farzan M (2011) PLoS Pathog 7(1): e1001258
    › Primary publication · 21253575 (PubMed) · PMC3017121 (PubMed Central)
  18. ANDES: Statistical tools for the ANalyses of DEep Sequencing. Li K, Venter E, Yooseph S, Stockwell TB, Eckerle LD, Denison MR, Spiro DJ, Methé BA (2010) BMC Res Notes : 199
    › Primary publication · 20633290 (PubMed) · PMC2921379 (PubMed Central)
  19. Infidelity of SARS-CoV Nsp14-exonuclease mutant virus replication is revealed by complete genome sequencing. Eckerle LD, Becker MM, Halpin RA, Li K, Venter E, Lu X, Scherbakova S, Graham RL, Baric RS, Stockwell TB, Spiro DJ, Denison MR (2010) PLoS Pathog 6(5): e1000896
    › Primary publication · 20463816 (PubMed) · PMC2865531 (PubMed Central)
  20. Exchange of the coronavirus replicase polyprotein cleavage sites alters protease specificity and processing. Gadlage MJ, Denison MR (2010) J Virol 84(13): 6894-8
    › Primary publication · 20427532 (PubMed) · PMC2903247 (PubMed Central)
  21. Use of intravenous zanamivir after development of oseltamivir resistance in a critically Ill immunosuppressed child infected with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus. Dulek DE, Williams JV, Creech CB, Schulert AK, Frangoul HA, Domm J, Denison MR, Chappell JD (2010) Clin Infect Dis 50(11): 1493-6
    › Primary publication · 20415572 (PubMed)
  22. H1N1 infection mimicking the clinical presentation of gastrointestinal GVHD in a patient following allo-SCT. Frangoul H, Domm J, Denison MR, Calder C, Black J (2011) Bone Marrow Transplant 46(1): 152-3
    › Primary publication · 20383217 (PubMed)
  23. Murine hepatitis virus nonstructural protein 4 regulates virus-induced membrane modifications and replication complex function. Gadlage MJ, Sparks JS, Beachboard DC, Cox RG, Doyle JD, Stobart CC, Denison MR (2010) J Virol 84(1): 280-90
    › Primary publication · 19846526 (PubMed) · PMC2798404 (PubMed Central)
  24. Synthetic recombinant bat SARS-like coronavirus is infectious in cultured cells and in mice. Becker MM, Graham RL, Donaldson EF, Rockx B, Sims AC, Sheahan T, Pickles RJ, Corti D, Johnston RE, Baric RS, Denison MR (2008) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(50): 19944-9
    › Primary publication · 19036930 (PubMed) · PMC2588415 (PubMed Central)
  25. Seeking membranes: positive-strand RNA virus replication complexes. Denison MR (2008) PLoS Biol 6(10): e270
    › Primary publication · 18959488 (PubMed) · PMC2573941 (PubMed Central)
  26. Murine coronaviruses encoding nsp2 at different genomic loci have altered replication, protein expression, and localization. Gadlage MJ, Graham RL, Denison MR (2008) J Virol 82(23): 11964-9
    › Primary publication · 18815297 (PubMed) · PMC2583644 (PubMed Central)
  27. A novel mutation in murine hepatitis virus nsp5, the viral 3C-like proteinase, causes temperature-sensitive defects in viral growth and protein processing. Sparks JS, Donaldson EF, Lu X, Baric RS, Denison MR (2008) J Virol 82(12): 5999-6008
    › Primary publication · 18385240 (PubMed) · PMC2395152 (PubMed Central)
  28. Genetic analysis of Murine hepatitis virus nsp4 in virus replication. Sparks JS, Lu X, Denison MR (2007) J Virol 81(22): 12554-63
    › Primary publication · 17855548 (PubMed) · PMC2169011 (PubMed Central)
  29. High fidelity of murine hepatitis virus replication is decreased in nsp14 exoribonuclease mutants. Eckerle LD, Lu X, Sperry SM, Choi L, Denison MR (2007) J Virol 81(22): 12135-44
    › Primary publication · 17804504 (PubMed) · PMC2169014 (PubMed Central)
  30. Coronavirus replication does not require the autophagy gene ATG5. Zhao Z, Thackray LB, Miller BC, Lynn TM, Becker MM, Ward E, Mizushima NN, Denison MR, Virgin HW (2007) Autophagy 3(6): 581-5
    › Primary publication · 17700057 (PubMed)
  31. Processing of open reading frame 1a replicase proteins nsp7 to nsp10 in murine hepatitis virus strain A59 replication. Deming DJ, Graham RL, Denison MR, Baric RS (2007) J Virol 81(19): 10280-91
    › Primary publication · 17634238 (PubMed) · PMC2045455 (PubMed Central)
  32. Analysis of murine hepatitis virus strain A59 temperature-sensitive mutant TS-LA6 suggests that nsp10 plays a critical role in polyprotein processing. Donaldson EF, Graham RL, Sims AC, Denison MR, Baric RS (2007) J Virol 81(13): 7086-98
    › Primary publication · 17428870 (PubMed) · PMC1933295 (PubMed Central)
  33. SARS coronavirus replicase proteins in pathogenesis. Graham RL, Sparks JS, Eckerle LD, Sims AC, Denison MR (2008) Virus Res 133(1): 88-100
    › Primary publication · 17397959 (PubMed) · PMC2637536 (PubMed Central)
  34. Murine hepatitis virus replicase protein nsp10 is a critical regulator of viral RNA synthesis. Donaldson EF, Sims AC, Graham RL, Denison MR, Baric RS (2007) J Virol 81(12): 6356-68
    › Primary publication · 17392363 (PubMed) · PMC1900072 (PubMed Central)
  35. MHV-A59 ORF1a replicase protein nsp7-nsp10 processing in replication. Deming DJ, Graham RL, Denison MR, Baric RS (2006) Adv Exp Med Biol : 101-4
    › Primary publication · 17037513 (PubMed)
  36. The nsp2 proteins of mouse hepatitis virus and SARS coronavirus are dispensable for viral replication. Graham RL, Sims AC, Baric RS, Denison MR (2006) Adv Exp Med Biol : 67-72
    › Primary publication · 17037506 (PubMed)
  37. Effects of mutagenesis of murine hepatitis virus nsp1 and nsp14 on replication in culture. Eckerle LD, Brockway SM, Sperry SM, Lu X, Denison MR (2006) Adv Exp Med Biol : 55-60
    › Primary publication · 17037504 (PubMed)
  38. Replication of murine hepatitis virus is regulated by papain-like proteinase 1 processing of nonstructural proteins 1, 2, and 3. Graham RL, Denison MR (2006) J Virol 80(23): 11610-20
    › Primary publication · 16971428 (PubMed) · PMC1642617 (PubMed Central)
  39. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus group-specific open reading frames encode nonessential functions for replication in cell cultures and mice. Yount B, Roberts RS, Sims AC, Deming D, Frieman MB, Sparks J, Denison MR, Davis N, Baric RS (2005) J Virol 79(23): 14909-22
    › Primary publication · 16282490 (PubMed) · PMC1287583 (PubMed Central)
  40. The nsp2 replicase proteins of murine hepatitis virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus are dispensable for viral replication. Graham RL, Sims AC, Brockway SM, Baric RS, Denison MR (2005) J Virol 79(21): 13399-411
    › Primary publication · 16227261 (PubMed) · PMC1262610 (PubMed Central)
  41. Mutagenesis of the murine hepatitis virus nsp1-coding region identifies residues important for protein processing, viral RNA synthesis, and viral replication. Brockway SM, Denison MR (2005) Virology 340(2): 209-23
    › Primary publication · 16051301 (PubMed)
  42. Single-amino-acid substitutions in open reading frame (ORF) 1b-nsp14 and ORF 2a proteins of the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus are attenuating in mice. Sperry SM, Kazi L, Graham RL, Baric RS, Weiss SR, Denison MR (2005) J Virol 79(6): 3391-400
    › Primary publication · 15731233 (PubMed) · PMC1075728 (PubMed Central)
  43. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus pathogenesis, disease and vaccines: an update. Denison MR (2004) Pediatr Infect Dis J 23(11 Suppl): S207-14
    › Primary publication · 15577575 (PubMed)
  44. Intracellular localization and protein interactions of the gene 1 protein p28 during mouse hepatitis virus replication. Brockway SM, Lu XT, Peters TR, Dermody TS, Denison MR (2004) J Virol 78(21): 11551-62
    › Primary publication · 15479796 (PubMed) · PMC523235 (PubMed Central)
  45. Identification and characterization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replicase proteins. Prentice E, McAuliffe J, Lu X, Subbarao K, Denison MR (2004) J Virol 78(18): 9977-86
    › Primary publication · 15331731 (PubMed) · PMC514967 (PubMed Central)
  46. Cleavage between replicase proteins p28 and p65 of mouse hepatitis virus is not required for virus replication. Denison MR, Yount B, Brockway SM, Graham RL, Sims AC, Lu X, Baric RS (2004) J Virol 78(11): 5957-65
    › Primary publication · 15140993 (PubMed) · PMC415798 (PubMed Central)
  47. Coronavirus replication complex formation utilizes components of cellular autophagy. Prentice E, Jerome WG, Yoshimori T, Mizushima N, Denison MR (2004) J Biol Chem 279(11): 10136-41
    › Primary publication · 14699140 (PubMed)
  48. Reverse genetics with a full-length infectious cDNA of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Yount B, Curtis KM, Fritz EA, Hensley LE, Jahrling PB, Prentice E, Denison MR, Geisbert TW, Baric RS (2003) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(22): 12995-3000
    › Primary publication · 14569023 (PubMed) · PMC240733 (PubMed Central)
  49. Characterization of the expression, intracellular localization, and replication complex association of the putative mouse hepatitis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Brockway SM, Clay CT, Lu XT, Denison MR (2003) J Virol 77(19): 10515-27
    › Primary publication · 12970436 (PubMed) · PMC228489 (PubMed Central)
  50. Systematic assembly of a full-length infectious cDNA of mouse hepatitis virus strain A59. Yount B, Denison MR, Weiss SR, Baric RS (2002) J Virol 76(21): 11065-78
    › Primary publication · 12368349 (PubMed) · PMC136593 (PubMed Central)
  51. Unilateral facial paralysis occurring in an infant with enteroviral otitis media and aseptic meningitis. Hostetler MA, Suara RO, Denison MR (2002) J Emerg Med 22(3): 267-71
    › Primary publication · 11932090 (PubMed)
  52. Coronavirus protein processing and RNA synthesis is inhibited by the cysteine proteinase inhibitor E64d. Kim JC, Spence RA, Currier PF, Lu X, Denison MR (1995) Virology 208(1): 1-8
    › Primary publication · 11831690 (PubMed)
  53. MHV-A59 gene 1 proteins are associated with two distinct membrane populations. Denison MR, Sims AC (2001) Adv Exp Med Biol : 655-61
    › Primary publication · 11774541 (PubMed)
  54. The cell biology of coronavirus infection. Prentice E, Denison MR (2001) Adv Exp Med Biol : 609-14
    › Primary publication · 11774533 (PubMed)
  55. Mouse hepatitis virus replicase protein complexes are translocated to sites of M protein accumulation in the ERGIC at late times of infection. Bost AG, Prentice E, Denison MR (2001) Virology 285(1): 21-9
    › Primary publication · 11414802 (PubMed)
  56. Mouse hepatitis virus replicase proteins associate with two distinct populations of intracellular membranes. Sims AC, Ostermann J, Denison MR (2000) J Virol 74(12): 5647-54
    › Primary publication · 10823872 (PubMed) · PMC112052 (PubMed Central)
  57. Four proteins processed from the replicase gene polyprotein of mouse hepatitis virus colocalize in the cell periphery and adjacent to sites of virion assembly. Bost AG, Carnahan RH, Lu XT, Denison MR (2000) J Virol 74(7): 3379-87
    › Primary publication · 10708455 (PubMed) · PMC111839 (PubMed Central)
  58. Localization of mouse hepatitis virus nonstructural proteins and RNA synthesis indicates a role for late endosomes in viral replication. van der Meer Y, Snijder EJ, Dobbe JC, Schleich S, Denison MR, Spaan WJ, Locker JK (1999) J Virol 73(9): 7641-57
    › Primary publication · 10438855 (PubMed) · PMC104292 (PubMed Central)
  59. The putative helicase of the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus is processed from the replicase gene polyprotein and localizes in complexes that are active in viral RNA synthesis. Denison MR, Spaan WJ, van der Meer Y, Gibson CA, Sims AC, Prentice E, Lu XT (1999) J Virol 73(8): 6862-71
    › Primary publication · 10400784 (PubMed) · PMC112771 (PubMed Central)
  60. Expression and processing of nonstructural proteins of the human astroviruses. Gibson CA, Chen J, Monroe SA, Denison MR (1998) Adv Exp Med Biol : 387-91
    › Primary publication · 9782307 (PubMed)
  61. Expression, purification, and activity of recombinant MHV-A59 3CLpro. Sims AC, Lu XT, Denison MR (1998) Adv Exp Med Biol : 129-34
    › Primary publication · 9782274 (PubMed)
  62. Processing of the MHV-A59 gene 1 polyprotein by the 3C-like proteinase. Denison MR, Sims AC, Gibson CA, Lu XT (1998) Adv Exp Med Biol : 121-7
    › Primary publication · 9782273 (PubMed)
  63. Mouse hepatitis virus 3C-like protease cleaves a 22-kilodalton protein from the open reading frame 1a polyprotein in virus-infected cells and in vitro. Lu XT, Sims AC, Denison MR (1998) J Virol 72(3): 2265-71
    › Primary publication · 9499085 (PubMed) · PMC109524 (PubMed Central)
  64. Determinants of mouse hepatitis virus 3C-like proteinase activity. Lu Y, Denison MR (1997) Virology 230(2): 335-42
    › Primary publication · 9143289 (PubMed)
  65. Fatal fat embolism syndrome in a child with undiagnosed hemoglobin S/beta+ thalassemia: a complication of acute parvovirus B19 infection. Kolquist KA, Vnencak-Jones CL, Swift L, Page DL, Johnson JE, Denison MR (1996) Pediatr Pathol Lab Med 16(1): 71-82
    › Primary publication · 8963632 (PubMed)
  66. Veillonella parvula bacteremia without an underlying source. Fisher RG, Denison MR (1996) J Clin Microbiol 34(12): 3235-6
    › Primary publication · 8940482 (PubMed) · PMC229493 (PubMed Central)
  67. Inhibition of coronavirus MHV-A59 replication by proteinase inhibitors. Denison MR, Kim JC, Ross T (1995) Adv Exp Med Biol : 391-7
    › Primary publication · 8830514 (PubMed)
  68. Intracellular and in vitro-translated 27-kDa proteins contain the 3C-like proteinase activity of the coronavirus MHV-A59. Lu X, Lu Y, Denison MR (1996) Virology 222(2): 375-82
    › Primary publication · 8806521 (PubMed)
  69. A newly identified MHV-A59 ORF1a polypeptide p65 is temperature sensitive in two RNA negative mutants. Hughes SA, Denison MR, Bonilla P, Leibowitz JL, Baric RS, Weiss SR (1993) Adv Exp Med Biol : 221-6
    › Primary publication · 8209734 (PubMed)
  70. Coronavirus polyprotein processing. Weiss SR, Hughes SA, Bonilla PJ, Turner JD, Leibowitz JL, Denison MR (1994) Arch Virol Suppl : 349-58
    › Primary publication · 8032266 (PubMed)
  71. Identification and characterization of a 65-kDa protein processed from the gene 1 polyprotein of the murine coronavirus MHV-A59. Denison MR, Hughes SA, Weiss SR (1995) Virology 207(1): 316-20
    › Primary publication · 7871746 (PubMed)
  72. Identification and characterization of a serine-like proteinase of the murine coronavirus MHV-A59. Lu Y, Lu X, Denison MR (1995) J Virol 69(6): 3554-9
    › Primary publication · 7745703 (PubMed) · PMC189070 (PubMed Central)
  73. Misidentification of Neisseria species in a neonate with conjunctivitis. Denison MR, Perlman S, Andersen RD (1988) Pediatrics 81(6): 877-8
    › Primary publication · 3285316 (PubMed)
  74. Translation and processing of mouse hepatitis virus virion RNA in a cell-free system. Denison MR, Perlman S (1986) J Virol 60(1): 12-8
    › Primary publication · 3018279 (PubMed) · PMC253896 (PubMed Central)
  75. Identification of polypeptides encoded in open reading frame 1b of the putative polymerase gene of the murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus A59. Denison MR, Zoltick PW, Leibowitz JL, Pachuk CJ, Weiss SR (1991) J Virol 65(6): 3076-82
    › Primary publication · 2033667 (PubMed) · PMC240963 (PubMed Central)
  76. Neonatal renal abscess caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Dougherty FE, Gottlieb RP, Gross GW, Denison MR (1991) Pediatr Infect Dis J 10(6): 463-6
    › Primary publication · 1852542 (PubMed)
  77. Intracellular processing of the N-terminal ORF 1a proteins of the coronavirus MHV-A59 requires multiple proteolytic events. Denison MR, Zoltick PW, Hughes SA, Giangreco B, Olson AL, Perlman S, Leibowitz JL, Weiss SR (1992) Virology 189(1): 274-84
    › Primary publication · 1318604 (PubMed)