Eric Skaar
Last active: 3/4/2020


In order for bacterial pathogens to cause disease, they must obtain nutrients inside their vertebrate hosts. The primary nutrients that are limiting to the growth of bacteria inside vertebrates are metals. This is due to the fact that vertebrates have developed numerous metal chelation systems that serve as a host defense against microbial infection. This process is called nutritional immunity. My laboratory is interested in identifying the host and bacterial factors that are involved in this battle for metal during the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. We use techniques from biochemistry, molecular biology, cell biology, and chemistry to answer fundamental questions pertaining to the host-pathogen interaction. In particular, we focus on diseases caused by the important human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (Staph infections), Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax), and Acinetobacter baumannii (leading cause of hospital infections and battlefield wound infections). The long term goal of our research is to develop novel therapies to treat microbial diseases.


The following timeline graph is generated from all co-authored publications.

Featured publications are shown below:

  1. The Innate Immune Protein S100A9 Protects from T-Helper Cell Type 2-mediated Allergic Airway Inflammation. Palmer LD, Maloney KN, Boyd KL, Goleniewska AK, Toki S, Maxwell CN, Chazin WJ, Peebles RS, Newcomb DC, Skaar EP (2019) Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 61(4): 459-468
    › Primary publication · 30943376 (PubMed) · PMC6775951 (PubMed Central)
  2. Multi-metal Restriction by Calprotectin Impacts De Novo Flavin Biosynthesis in Acinetobacter baumannii. Wang J, Lonergan ZR, Gonzalez-Gutierrez G, Nairn BL, Maxwell CN, Zhang Y, Andreini C, Karty JA, Chazin WJ, Trinidad JC, Skaar EP, Giedroc DP (2019) Cell Chem Biol 26(5): 745-755.e7
    › Primary publication · 30905682 (PubMed) · PMC6525019 (PubMed Central)
  3. Cuts Both Ways: Proteases Modulate Virulence of Enterohemorrhagic . Palmer LD, Skaar EP (2019) mBio 10(1)
    › Primary publication · 30808700 (PubMed) · PMC6391915 (PubMed Central)
  4. Manganese Detoxification by MntE Is Critical for Resistance to Oxidative Stress and Virulence of . Grunenwald CM, Choby JE, Juttukonda LJ, Beavers WN, Weiss A, Torres VJ, Skaar EP (2019) mBio 10(1)
    › Primary publication · 30808698 (PubMed) · PMC6391924 (PubMed Central)
  5. Assessing Acinetobacter baumannii Virulence and Persistence in a Murine Model of Lung Infection. Palmer LD, Green ER, Sheldon JR, Skaar EP (2019) Methods Mol Biol : 289-305
    › Primary publication · 30798564 (PubMed) · PMC6446551 (PubMed Central)
  6. An Acinetobacter baumannii, Zinc-Regulated Peptidase Maintains Cell Wall Integrity during Immune-Mediated Nutrient Sequestration. Lonergan ZR, Nairn BL, Wang J, Hsu YP, Hesse LE, Beavers WN, Chazin WJ, Trinidad JC, VanNieuwenhze MS, Giedroc DP, Skaar EP (2019) Cell Rep 26(8): 2009-2018.e6
    › Primary publication · 30784584 (PubMed) · PMC6441547 (PubMed Central)
  7. Apotransferrin in Combination with Ciprofloxacin Slows Bacterial Replication, Prevents Resistance Amplification, and Increases Antimicrobial Regimen Effect. Ambrose PG, VanScoy BD, Luna BM, Yan J, Ulhaq A, Nielsen TB, Rudin S, Hujer K, Bonomo RA, Actis L, Skaar E, Spellberg B (2019) Antimicrob Agents Chemother 63(5)
    › Primary publication · 30782989 (PubMed) · PMC6496049 (PubMed Central)
  8. A Phenome-Wide Association Study Uncovers a Pathological Role of Coagulation Factor X during Infection. Choby JE, Monteith AJ, Himmel LE, Margaritis P, Shirey-Rice JK, Pruijssers A, Jerome RN, Pulley J, Skaar EP (2019) Infect Immun 87(5)
    › Primary publication · 30782860 (PubMed) · PMC6479028 (PubMed Central)
  9. S100 Proteins in the Innate Immune Response to Pathogens. Kozlyuk N, Monteith AJ, Garcia V, Damo SM, Skaar EP, Chazin WJ (2019) Methods Mol Biol : 275-290
    › Primary publication · 30710280 (PubMed) · PMC6475579 (PubMed Central)
  10. Synthesis of the Siderophore Coelichelin and Its Utility as a Probe in the Study of Bacterial Metal Sensing and Response. Williams JC, Sheldon JR, Imlay HD, Dutter BF, Draelos MM, Skaar EP, Sulikowski GA (2019) Org Lett 21(3): 679-682
    › Primary publication · 30645132 (PubMed) · PMC6474248 (PubMed Central)
  11. Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Alter the Microbiota and Exacerbate Colitis while Dysregulating the Inflammatory Response. Maseda D, Zackular JP, Trindade B, Kirk L, Roxas JL, Rogers LM, Washington MK, Du L, Koyama T, Viswanathan VK, Vedantam G, Schloss PD, Crofford LJ, Skaar EP, Aronoff DM (2019) mBio 10(1)
    › Primary publication · 30622186 (PubMed) · PMC6325247 (PubMed Central)
  12. Heme sensing and detoxification by HatRT contributes to pathogenesis during Clostridium difficile infection. Knippel RJ, Zackular JP, Moore JL, Celis AI, Weiss A, Washington MK, DuBois JL, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP (2018) PLoS Pathog 14(12): e1007486
    › Primary publication · 30576368 (PubMed) · PMC6303022 (PubMed Central)
  13. Nonconventional Therapeutics against . Grunenwald CM, Bennett MR, Skaar EP (2018) Microbiol Spectr 6(6)
    › Primary publication · 30547858 (PubMed) · PMC6296826 (PubMed Central)
  14. Human mAbs to Staphylococcus aureus IsdA Provide Protection Through Both Heme-Blocking and Fc-Mediated Mechanisms. Bennett MR, Bombardi RG, Kose N, Parrish EH, Nagel MB, Petit RA, Read TD, Schey KL, Thomsen IP, Skaar EP, Crowe JE (2019) J Infect Dis 219(8): 1264-1273
    › Primary publication · 30496483 (PubMed) · PMC6452300 (PubMed Central)
  15. Molecular Basis for the Evolution of Species-Specific Hemoglobin Capture by Staphylococcus aureus. Choby JE, Buechi HB, Farrand AJ, Skaar EP, Barber MF (2018) mBio 9(6)
    › Primary publication · 30459189 (PubMed) · PMC6247092 (PubMed Central)
  16. OxyR Regulates the Transcriptional Response to Hydrogen Peroxide. Juttukonda LJ, Green ER, Lonergan ZR, Heffern MC, Chang CJ, Skaar EP (2019) Infect Immun 87(1)
    › Primary publication · 30297527 (PubMed) · PMC6300632 (PubMed Central)
  17. Amycomicin is a potent and specific antibiotic discovered with a targeted interaction screen. Pishchany G, Mevers E, Ndousse-Fetter S, Horvath DJ, Paludo CR, Silva-Junior EA, Koren S, Skaar EP, Clardy J, Kolter R (2018) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 115(40): 10124-10129
    › Primary publication · 30228116 (PubMed) · PMC6176635 (PubMed Central)
  18. An Integrated, High-Throughput Strategy for Multiomic Systems Level Analysis. Gutierrez DB, Gant-Branum RL, Romer CE, Farrow MA, Allen JL, Dahal N, Nei YW, Codreanu SG, Jordan AT, Palmer LD, Sherrod SD, McLean JA, Skaar EP, Norris JL, Caprioli RM (2018) J Proteome Res 17(10): 3396-3408
    › Primary publication · 30114907 (PubMed) · PMC6469931 (PubMed Central)
  19. Correction: Competing for Iron: Duplication and Amplification of the isd Locus in Staphylococcus lugdunensis HKU09-01 Provides a Competitive Advantage to Overcome Nutritional Limitation. Heilbronner S, Monk IR, Brozyna JR, Heinrichs DE, Skaar EP, Peschel A, Foster TJ (2018) PLoS Genet 14(7): e1007564
    › Primary publication · 30052688 (PubMed) · PMC6063724 (PubMed Central)
  20. The role of zinc and nutritional immunity in Clostridium difficile infection. Zackular JP, Skaar EP (2018) Gut Microbes 9(5): 469-476
    › Primary publication · 29533126 (PubMed) · PMC6219639 (PubMed Central)
  21. Understanding cardiovascular physiology of ageing. Flaatten H, Skaar E, Joynt GM (2018) Intensive Care Med 44(6): 932-935
    › Primary publication · 29523898 (PubMed)
  22. HemX Modulates Glutamyl-tRNA Reductase Abundance To Regulate Heme Biosynthesis. Choby JE, Grunenwald CM, Celis AI, Gerdes SY, DuBois JL, Skaar EP (2018) mBio 9(1)
    › Primary publication · 29437922 (PubMed) · PMC5801465 (PubMed Central)
  23. Fur regulation of Staphylococcus aureus heme oxygenases is required for heme homeostasis. Lojek LJ, Farrand AJ, Weiss A, Skaar EP (2018) Int J Med Microbiol 308(6): 582-589
    › Primary publication · 29409696 (PubMed) · PMC6070430 (PubMed Central)
  24. Crossed Wires: Interspecies Interference Blocks Pathogen Colonization. Lopez CA, Skaar EP (2017) Cell Host Microbe 22(6): 721-723
    › Primary publication · 29241035 (PubMed)
  25. In vivo bioluminescence imaging of labile iron accumulation in a murine model of infection. Aron AT, Heffern MC, Lonergan ZR, Vander Wal MN, Blank BR, Spangler B, Zhang Y, Park HM, Stahl A, Renslo AR, Skaar EP, Chang CJ (2017) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114(48): 12669-12674
    › Primary publication · 29138321 (PubMed) · PMC5715752 (PubMed Central)
  26. Defining the interaction of the protease CpaA with its type II secretion chaperone CpaB and its contribution to virulence in species. Kinsella RL, Lopez J, Palmer LD, Salinas ND, Skaar EP, Tolia NH, Feldman MF (2017) J Biol Chem 292(48): 19628-19638
    › Primary publication · 28982978 (PubMed) · PMC5712607 (PubMed Central)
  27. Dietary Manganese Promotes Staphylococcal Infection of the Heart. Juttukonda LJ, Berends ETM, Zackular JP, Moore JL, Stier MT, Zhang Y, Schmitz JE, Beavers WN, Wijers CD, Gilston BA, Kehl-Fie TE, Atkinson J, Washington MK, Peebles RS, Chazin WJ, Torres VJ, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP (2017) Cell Host Microbe 22(4): 531-542.e8
    › Primary publication · 28943329 (PubMed) · PMC5638708 (PubMed Central)
  28. Hydrogen Sulfide and Reactive Sulfur Species Impact Proteome S-Sulfhydration and Global Virulence Regulation in Staphylococcus aureus. Peng H, Zhang Y, Palmer LD, Kehl-Fie TE, Skaar EP, Trinidad JC, Giedroc DP (2017) ACS Infect Dis 3(10): 744-755
    › Primary publication · 28850209 (PubMed) · PMC5863038 (PubMed Central)
  29. LFO1 Is an IsdG Family Heme Oxygenase. Lojek LJ, Farrand AJ, Wisecaver JH, Blaby-Haas CE, Michel BW, Merchant SS, Rokas A, Skaar EP (2017) mSphere 2(4)
    › Primary publication · 28815214 (PubMed) · PMC5557675 (PubMed Central)
  30. Antibacterial photosensitization through activation of coproporphyrinogen oxidase. Surdel MC, Horvath DJ, Lojek LJ, Fullen AR, Simpson J, Dutter BF, Salleng KJ, Ford JB, Jenkins JL, Nagarajan R, Teixeira PL, Albertolle M, Georgiev IS, Jansen ED, Sulikowski GA, Lacy DB, Dailey HA, Skaar EP (2017) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114(32): E6652-E6659
    › Primary publication · 28739897 (PubMed) · PMC5559000 (PubMed Central)
  31. Sulfide Homeostasis and Nitroxyl Intersect via Formation of Reactive Sulfur Species in . Peng H, Shen J, Edmonds KA, Luebke JL, Hickey AK, Palmer LD, Chang FJ, Bruce KA, Kehl-Fie TE, Skaar EP, Giedroc DP (2017) mSphere 2(3)
    › Primary publication · 28656172 (PubMed) · PMC5480029 (PubMed Central)
  32. Mechanisms of Pyocyanin Toxicity and Genetic Determinants of Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Noto MJ, Burns WJ, Beavers WN, Skaar EP (2017) J Bacteriol 199(17)
    › Primary publication · 28607159 (PubMed) · PMC5553028 (PubMed Central)
  33. Accelerating Precision Drug Development and Drug Repurposing by Leveraging Human Genetics. Pulley JM, Shirey-Rice JK, Lavieri RR, Jerome RN, Zaleski NM, Aronoff DM, Bastarache L, Niu X, Holroyd KJ, Roden DM, Skaar EP, Niswender CM, Marnett LJ, Lindsley CW, Ekstrom LB, Bentley AR, Bernard GR, Hong CC, Denny JC (2017) Assay Drug Dev Technol 15(3): 113-119
    › Primary publication · 28379727 (PubMed) · PMC5399743 (PubMed Central)
  34. Conditions for autonomous choice: a qualitative study of older adults' experience of decision-making in TAVR. Skaar E, Ranhoff AH, Nordrehaug JE, Forman DE, Schaufel MA (2017) J Geriatr Cardiol 14(1): 42-48
    › Primary publication · 28270841 (PubMed) · PMC5329732 (PubMed Central)
  35. A Superoxide Dismutase Capable of Functioning with Iron or Manganese Promotes the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to Calprotectin and Nutritional Immunity. Garcia YM, Barwinska-Sendra A, Tarrant E, Skaar EP, Waldron KJ, Kehl-Fie TE (2017) PLoS Pathog 13(1): e1006125
    › Primary publication · 28103306 (PubMed) · PMC5245786 (PubMed Central)
  36. Integrated, High-Throughput, Multiomics Platform Enables Data-Driven Construction of Cellular Responses and Reveals Global Drug Mechanisms of Action. Norris JL, Farrow MA, Gutierrez DB, Palmer LD, Muszynski N, Sherrod SD, Pino JC, Allen JL, Spraggins JM, Lubbock AL, Jordan A, Burns W, Poland JC, Romer C, Manier ML, Nei YW, Prentice BM, Rose KL, Hill S, Van de Plas R, Tsui T, Braman NM, Keller MR, Rutherford SA, Lobdell N, Lopez CF, Lacy DB, McLean JA, Wikswo JP, Skaar EP, Caprioli RM (2017) J Proteome Res 16(3): 1364-1375
    › Primary publication · 28088864 (PubMed)
  37. RAGE-Mediated Suppression of Interleukin-10 Results in Enhanced Mortality in a Murine Model of Acinetobacter baumannii Sepsis. Noto MJ, Becker KW, Boyd KL, Schmidt AM, Skaar EP (2017) Infect Immun 85(3)
    › Primary publication · 28052995 (PubMed) · PMC5328494 (PubMed Central)
  38. Erratum: Dietary zinc alters the microbiota and decreases resistance to Clostridium difficile infection. Zackular JP, Moore JL, Jordan AT, Juttukonda LJ, Noto MJ, Nicholson MR, Crews JD, Semler MW, Zhang Y, Ware LB, Washington MK, Chazin WJ, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP (2016) Nat Med 22(12): 1502
    › Primary publication · 27923021 (PubMed) · PMC5453636 (PubMed Central)
  39. A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Iron-Sulfur Cluster Assembly Uncovers a Link between Virulence Regulation and Metabolism in Staphylococcus aureus. Choby JE, Mike LA, Mashruwala AA, Dutter BF, Dunman PM, Sulikowski GA, Boyd JM, Skaar EP (2016) Cell Chem Biol 23(11): 1351-1361
    › Primary publication · 27773628 (PubMed) · PMC5117899 (PubMed Central)
  40. TLR9 activation suppresses inflammation in response to Helicobacter pylori infection. Varga MG, Piazuelo MB, Romero-Gallo J, Delgado AG, Suarez G, Whitaker ME, Krishna US, Patel RV, Skaar EP, Wilson KT, Algood HM, Peek RM (2016) Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 311(5): G852-G858
    › Primary publication · 27758771 (PubMed) · PMC5130555 (PubMed Central)
  41. Acinetobacter baumannii Coordinates Urea Metabolism with Metal Import To Resist Host-Mediated Metal Limitation. Juttukonda LJ, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP (2016) mBio 7(5)
    › Primary publication · 27677795 (PubMed) · PMC5050338 (PubMed Central)
  42. Dietary zinc alters the microbiota and decreases resistance to Clostridium difficile infection. Zackular JP, Moore JL, Jordan AT, Juttukonda LJ, Noto MJ, Nicholson MR, Crews JD, Semler MW, Zhang Y, Ware LB, Washington MK, Chazin WJ, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP (2016) Nat Med 22(11): 1330-1334
    › Primary publication · 27668938 (PubMed) · PMC5101143 (PubMed Central)
  43. Bacterial Nitric Oxide Synthase Is Required for the Staphylococcus aureus Response to Heme Stress. Surdel MC, Dutter BF, Sulikowski GA, Skaar EP (2016) ACS Infect Dis 2(8): 572-8
    › Primary publication · 27626297 (PubMed) · PMC6610873 (PubMed Central)
  44. Transition Metals and Virulence in Bacteria. Palmer LD, Skaar EP (2016) Annu Rev Genet : 67-91
    › Primary publication · 27617971 (PubMed) · PMC5125913 (PubMed Central)
  45. Competing for Iron: Duplication and Amplification of the isd Locus in Staphylococcus lugdunensis HKU09-01 Provides a Competitive Advantage to Overcome Nutritional Limitation. Heilbronner S, Monk IR, Brozyna JR, Heinrichs DE, Skaar EP, Peschel A, Foster TJ (2016) PLoS Genet 12(8): e1006246
    › Primary publication · 27575058 (PubMed) · PMC5004866 (PubMed Central)
  46. Binding of transition metals to S100 proteins. Gilston BA, Skaar EP, Chazin WJ (2016) Sci China Life Sci 59(8): 792-801
    › Primary publication · 27430886 (PubMed) · PMC5123432 (PubMed Central)
  47. CtaM Is Required for Menaquinol Oxidase aa3 Function in Staphylococcus aureus. Hammer ND, Schurig-Briccio LA, Gerdes SY, Gennis RB, Skaar EP (2016) mBio 7(4)
    › Primary publication · 27406563 (PubMed) · PMC4958251 (PubMed Central)
  48. Neutrophil-generated oxidative stress and protein damage in Staphylococcus aureus. Beavers WN, Skaar EP (2016) Pathog Dis 74(6)
    › Primary publication · 27354296 (PubMed) · PMC5975594 (PubMed Central)
  49. Repurposing the Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Diflunisal as an Osteoprotective, Antivirulence Therapy for Staphylococcus aureus Osteomyelitis. Hendrix AS, Spoonmore TJ, Wilde AD, Putnam NE, Hammer ND, Snyder DJ, Guelcher SA, Skaar EP, Cassat JE (2016) Antimicrob Agents Chemother 60(9): 5322-30
    › Primary publication · 27324764 (PubMed) · PMC4997817 (PubMed Central)
  50. The innate immune protein calprotectin promotes Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus interaction. Wakeman CA, Moore JL, Noto MJ, Zhang Y, Singleton MD, Prentice BM, Gilston BA, Doster RS, Gaddy JA, Chazin WJ, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP (2016) Nat Commun : 11951
    › Primary publication · 27301800 (PubMed) · PMC4912628 (PubMed Central)
  51. The Response of Acinetobacter baumannii to Zinc Starvation. Nairn BL, Lonergan ZR, Wang J, Braymer JJ, Zhang Y, Calcutt MW, Lisher JP, Gilston BA, Chazin WJ, de Crécy-Lagard V, Giedroc DP, Skaar EP (2016) Cell Host Microbe 19(6): 826-36
    › Primary publication · 27281572 (PubMed) · PMC4901392 (PubMed Central)
  52. Salmonella Mitigates Oxidative Stress and Thrives in the Inflamed Gut by Evading Calprotectin-Mediated Manganese Sequestration. Diaz-Ochoa VE, Lam D, Lee CS, Klaus S, Behnsen J, Liu JZ, Chim N, Nuccio SP, Rathi SG, Mastroianni JR, Edwards RA, Jacobo CM, Cerasi M, Battistoni A, Ouellette AJ, Goulding CW, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP, Raffatellu M (2016) Cell Host Microbe 19(6): 814-25
    › Primary publication · 27281571 (PubMed) · PMC4901528 (PubMed Central)
  53. Next-generation technologies for spatial proteomics: Integrating ultra-high speed MALDI-TOF and high mass resolution MALDI FTICR imaging mass spectrometry for protein analysis. Spraggins JM, Rizzo DG, Moore JL, Noto MJ, Skaar EP, Caprioli RM (2016) Proteomics 16(11-12): 1678-89
    › Primary publication · 27060368 (PubMed) · PMC5117945 (PubMed Central)
  54. Heme Synthesis and Acquisition in Bacterial Pathogens. Choby JE, Skaar EP (2016) J Mol Biol 428(17): 3408-28
    › Primary publication · 27019298 (PubMed) · PMC5125930 (PubMed Central)
  55. Decoupling Activation of Heme Biosynthesis from Anaerobic Toxicity in a Molecule Active in Staphylococcus aureus. Dutter BF, Mike LA, Reid PR, Chong KM, Ramos-Hunter SJ, Skaar EP, Sulikowski GA (2016) ACS Chem Biol 11(5): 1354-61
    › Primary publication · 26890615 (PubMed) · PMC5117894 (PubMed Central)
  56. Medically Relevant Acinetobacter Species Require a Type II Secretion System and Specific Membrane-Associated Chaperones for the Export of Multiple Substrates and Full Virulence. Harding CM, Kinsella RL, Palmer LD, Skaar EP, Feldman MF (2016) PLoS Pathog 12(1): e1005391
    › Primary publication · 26764912 (PubMed) · PMC4713064 (PubMed Central)
  57. Bacterial Hypoxic Responses Revealed as Critical Determinants of the Host-Pathogen Outcome by TnSeq Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus Invasive Infection. Wilde AD, Snyder DJ, Putnam NE, Valentino MD, Hammer ND, Lonergan ZR, Hinger SA, Aysanoa EE, Blanchard C, Dunman PM, Wasserman GA, Chen J, Shopsin B, Gilmore MS, Skaar EP, Cassat JE (2015) PLoS Pathog 11(12): e1005341
    › Primary publication · 26684646 (PubMed) · PMC4684308 (PubMed Central)
  58. Helicobacter pylori Resists the Antimicrobial Activity of Calprotectin via Lipid A Modification and Associated Biofilm Formation. Gaddy JA, Radin JN, Cullen TW, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP, Trent MS, Algood HM (2015) mBio 6(6): e01349-15
    › Primary publication · 26646009 (PubMed) · PMC4669380 (PubMed Central)
  59. Zinc and Manganese Chelation by Neutrophil S100A8/A9 (Calprotectin) Limits Extracellular Aspergillus fumigatus Hyphal Growth and Corneal Infection. Clark HL, Jhingran A, Sun Y, Vareechon C, de Jesus Carrion S, Skaar EP, Chazin WJ, Calera JA, Hohl TM, Pearlman E (2016) J Immunol 196(1): 336-44
    › Primary publication · 26582948 (PubMed) · PMC4684987 (PubMed Central)
  60. Time-resolved Studies of IsdG Protein Identify Molecular Signposts along the Non-canonical Heme Oxygenase Pathway. Streit BR, Kant R, Tokmina-Lukaszewska M, Celis AI, Machovina MM, Skaar EP, Bothner B, DuBois JL (2016) J Biol Chem 291(2): 862-71
    › Primary publication · 26534961 (PubMed) · PMC4705404 (PubMed Central)
  61. Toll-Like Receptor 9 Contributes to Defense against Acinetobacter baumannii Infection. Noto MJ, Boyd KL, Burns WJ, Varga MG, Peek RM, Skaar EP (2015) Infect Immun 83(10): 4134-41
    › Primary publication · 26238713 (PubMed) · PMC4567622 (PubMed Central)
  62. Calprotectin Increases the Activity of the SaeRS Two Component System and Murine Mortality during Staphylococcus aureus Infections. Cho H, Jeong DW, Liu Q, Yeo WS, Vogl T, Skaar EP, Chazin WJ, Bae T (2015) PLoS Pathog 11(7): e1005026
    › Primary publication · 26147796 (PubMed) · PMC4492782 (PubMed Central)
  63. Bacillithiol has a role in Fe-S cluster biogenesis in Staphylococcus aureus. Rosario-Cruz Z, Chahal HK, Mike LA, Skaar EP, Boyd JM (2015) Mol Microbiol 98(2): 218-42
    › Primary publication · 26135358 (PubMed) · PMC4705035 (PubMed Central)
  64. An Iron-Regulated Autolysin Remodels the Cell Wall To Facilitate Heme Acquisition in Staphylococcus lugdunensis. Farrand AJ, Haley KP, Lareau NM, Heilbronner S, McLean JA, Foster T, Skaar EP (2015) Infect Immun 83(9): 3578-89
    › Primary publication · 26123800 (PubMed) · PMC4534641 (PubMed Central)
  65. Nutritional Immunity: S100 Proteins at the Host-Pathogen Interface. Zackular JP, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP (2015) J Biol Chem 290(31): 18991-8
    › Primary publication · 26055713 (PubMed) · PMC4521021 (PubMed Central)
  66. Metals in infectious diseases and nutritional immunity. Skaar EP, Raffatellu M (2015) Metallomics 7(6): 926-8
    › Primary publication · 26017093 (PubMed)
  67. The Human Antimicrobial Protein Calgranulin C Participates in Control of Helicobacter pylori Growth and Regulation of Virulence. Haley KP, Delgado AG, Piazuelo MB, Mortensen BL, Correa P, Damo SM, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP, Gaddy JA (2015) Infect Immun 83(7): 2944-56
    › Primary publication · 25964473 (PubMed) · PMC4468547 (PubMed Central)
  68. MALDI FTICR IMS of Intact Proteins: Using Mass Accuracy to Link Protein Images with Proteomics Data. Spraggins JM, Rizzo DG, Moore JL, Rose KL, Hammer ND, Skaar EP, Caprioli RM (2015) J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 26(6): 974-85
    › Primary publication · 25904064 (PubMed) · PMC4442642 (PubMed Central)
  69. Existence of a Colonizing Staphylococcus aureus Strain Isolated in Diabetic Foot Ulcers. Messad N, Prajsnar TK, Lina G, O'Callaghan D, Foster SJ, Renshaw SA, Skaar EP, Bes M, Dunyach-Remy C, Vandenesch F, Sotto A, Lavigne JP (2015) Diabetes 64(8): 2991-5
    › Primary publication · 25901094 (PubMed) · PMC4512213 (PubMed Central)
  70. Manganese homeostasis and utilization in pathogenic bacteria. Juttukonda LJ, Skaar EP (2015) Mol Microbiol 97(2): 216-28
    › Primary publication · 25898914 (PubMed) · PMC4631260 (PubMed Central)
  71. The capability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to recruit zinc under conditions of limited metal availability is affected by inactivation of the ZnuABC transporter. D'Orazio M, Mastropasqua MC, Cerasi M, Pacello F, Consalvo A, Chirullo B, Mortensen B, Skaar EP, Ciavardelli D, Pasquali P, Battistoni A (2015) Metallomics 7(6): 1023-35
    › Primary publication · 25751674 (PubMed) · PMC4464940 (PubMed Central)
  72. Proteomic analyses of iron-responsive, Clp-dependent changes in Staphylococcus aureus. Farrand AJ, Friedman DB, Reniere ML, Ingmer H, Frees D, Skaar EP (2015) Pathog Dis 73(3)
    › Primary publication · 25743475 (PubMed) · PMC4542840 (PubMed Central)
  73. The host protein calprotectin modulates the Helicobacter pylori cag type IV secretion system via zinc sequestration. Gaddy JA, Radin JN, Loh JT, Piazuelo MB, Kehl-Fie TE, Delgado AG, Ilca FT, Peek RM, Cover TL, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP, Scott Algood HM (2014) PLoS Pathog 10(10): e1004450
    › Primary publication · 25330071 (PubMed) · PMC4199781 (PubMed Central)
  74. The CsoR-like sulfurtransferase repressor (CstR) is a persulfide sensor in Staphylococcus aureus. Luebke JL, Shen J, Bruce KE, Kehl-Fie TE, Peng H, Skaar EP, Giedroc DP (2014) Mol Microbiol 94(6): 1343-60
    › Primary publication · 25318663 (PubMed) · PMC4264537 (PubMed Central)
  75. Inter- and intraspecies metabolite exchange promotes virulence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Hammer ND, Cassat JE, Noto MJ, Lojek LJ, Chadha AD, Schmitz JE, Creech CB, Skaar EP (2014) Cell Host Microbe 16(4): 531-7
    › Primary publication · 25299336 (PubMed) · PMC4197139 (PubMed Central)
  76. Metal limitation and toxicity at the interface between host and pathogen. Becker KW, Skaar EP (2014) FEMS Microbiol Rev 38(6): 1235-49
    › Primary publication · 25211180 (PubMed) · PMC4227937 (PubMed Central)
  77. Myeloid-related protein-8/14 facilitates bacterial growth during pneumococcal pneumonia. Achouiti A, Vogl T, Endeman H, Mortensen BL, Laterre PF, Wittebole X, van Zoelen MA, Zhang Y, Hoogerwerf JJ, Florquin S, Schultz MJ, Grutters JC, Biesma DH, Roth J, Skaar EP, van 't Veer C, de Vos AF, van der Poll T (2014) Thorax 69(11): 1034-42
    › Primary publication · 25179663 (PubMed)
  78. Advanced mass spectrometry technologies for the study of microbial pathogenesis. Moore JL, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP (2014) Curr Opin Microbiol : 45-51
    › Primary publication · 24997399 (PubMed) · PMC4125470 (PubMed Central)
  79. Acinetobacter baumannii response to host-mediated zinc limitation requires the transcriptional regulator Zur. Mortensen BL, Rathi S, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP (2014) J Bacteriol 196(14): 2616-26
    › Primary publication · 24816603 (PubMed) · PMC4097591 (PubMed Central)
  80. Two-component system cross-regulation integrates Bacillus anthracis response to heme and cell envelope stress. Mike LA, Choby JE, Brinkman PR, Olive LQ, Dutter BF, Ivan SJ, Gibbs CM, Sulikowski GA, Stauff DL, Skaar EP (2014) PLoS Pathog 10(3): e1004044
    › Primary publication · 24675902 (PubMed) · PMC3968170 (PubMed Central)
  81. Structure and function of the genomically encoded fosfomycin resistance enzyme, FosB, from Staphylococcus aureus. Thompson MK, Keithly ME, Goodman MC, Hammer ND, Cook PD, Jagessar KL, Harp J, Skaar EP, Armstrong RN (2014) Biochemistry 53(4): 755-65
    › Primary publication · 24447055 (PubMed) · PMC3985756 (PubMed Central)
  82. Transferrin iron starvation therapy for lethal bacterial and fungal infections. Lin L, Pantapalangkoor P, Tan B, Bruhn KW, Ho T, Nielsen T, Skaar EP, Zhang Y, Bai R, Wang A, Doherty TM, Spellberg B (2014) J Infect Dis 210(2): 254-64
    › Primary publication · 24446527 (PubMed) · PMC4092247 (PubMed Central)
  83. Differential activation of Staphylococcus aureus heme detoxification machinery by heme analogues. Wakeman CA, Stauff DL, Zhang Y, Skaar EP (2014) J Bacteriol 196(7): 1335-42
    › Primary publication · 24443529 (PubMed) · PMC3993332 (PubMed Central)
  84. The contribution of nutrient metal acquisition and metabolism to Acinetobacter baumannii survival within the host. Mortensen BL, Skaar EP (2013) Front Cell Infect Microbiol : 95
    › Primary publication · 24377089 (PubMed) · PMC3859900 (PubMed Central)
  85. IsdB-dependent hemoglobin binding is required for acquisition of heme by Staphylococcus aureus. Pishchany G, Sheldon JR, Dickson CF, Alam MT, Read TD, Gell DA, Heinrichs DE, Skaar EP (2014) J Infect Dis 209(11): 1764-72
    › Primary publication · 24338348 (PubMed) · PMC4038968 (PubMed Central)
  86. Recent advances in experimental models of osteomyelitis. Cassat JE, Skaar EP (2013) Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 11(12): 1263-5
    › Primary publication · 24215241 (PubMed)
  87. Loss of mitochondrial protein Fus1 augments host resistance to Acinetobacter baumannii infection. Hood MI, Uzhachenko R, Boyd K, Skaar EP, Ivanova AV (2013) Infect Immun 81(12): 4461-9
    › Primary publication · 24042119 (PubMed) · PMC3837987 (PubMed Central)
  88. Regulation of host hemoglobin binding by the Staphylococcus aureus Clp proteolytic system. Farrand AJ, Reniere ML, Ingmer H, Frees D, Skaar EP (2013) J Bacteriol 195(22): 5041-50
    › Primary publication · 23995637 (PubMed) · PMC3811588 (PubMed Central)
  89. Two heme-dependent terminal oxidases power Staphylococcus aureus organ-specific colonization of the vertebrate host. Hammer ND, Reniere ML, Cassat JE, Zhang Y, Hirsch AO, Indriati Hood M, Skaar EP (2013) mBio 4(4)
    › Primary publication · 23900169 (PubMed) · PMC3735196 (PubMed Central)
  90. Analysis of the Staphylococcus aureus abscess proteome identifies antimicrobial host proteins and bacterial stress responses at the host-pathogen interface. Attia AS, Cassat JE, Aranmolate SO, Zimmerman LJ, Boyd KL, Skaar EP (2013) Pathog Dis 69(1): 36-48
    › Primary publication · 23847107 (PubMed) · PMC3877740 (PubMed Central)
  91. MntABC and MntH contribute to systemic Staphylococcus aureus infection by competing with calprotectin for nutrient manganese. Kehl-Fie TE, Zhang Y, Moore JL, Farrand AJ, Hood MI, Rathi S, Chazin WJ, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP (2013) Infect Immun 81(9): 3395-405
    › Primary publication · 23817615 (PubMed) · PMC3754211 (PubMed Central)
  92. A secreted bacterial protease tailors the Staphylococcus aureus virulence repertoire to modulate bone remodeling during osteomyelitis. Cassat JE, Hammer ND, Campbell JP, Benson MA, Perrien DS, Mrak LN, Smeltzer MS, Torres VJ, Skaar EP (2013) Cell Host Microbe 13(6): 759-72
    › Primary publication · 23768499 (PubMed) · PMC3721972 (PubMed Central)
  93. Imaging mass spectrometry for assessing temporal proteomics: analysis of calprotectin in Acinetobacter baumannii pulmonary infection. Moore JL, Becker KW, Nicklay JJ, Boyd KL, Skaar EP, Caprioli RM (2014) Proteomics 14(7-8): 820-828
    › Primary publication · 23754577 (PubMed) · PMC3883928 (PubMed Central)
  94. The chlorite dismutase (HemQ) from Staphylococcus aureus has a redox-sensitive heme and is associated with the small colony variant phenotype. Mayfield JA, Hammer ND, Kurker RC, Chen TK, Ojha S, Skaar EP, DuBois JL (2013) J Biol Chem 288(32): 23488-504
    › Primary publication · 23737523 (PubMed) · PMC5395028 (PubMed Central)
  95. Cdc42 promotes host defenses against fatal infection. Lee K, Boyd KL, Parekh DV, Kehl-Fie TE, Baldwin HS, Brakebusch C, Skaar EP, Boothby M, Zent R (2013) Infect Immun 81(8): 2714-23
    › Primary publication · 23690402 (PubMed) · PMC3719566 (PubMed Central)
  96. Iron in infection and immunity. Cassat JE, Skaar EP (2013) Cell Host Microbe 13(5): 509-519
    › Primary publication · 23684303 (PubMed) · PMC3676888 (PubMed Central)
  97. Activation of heme biosynthesis by a small molecule that is toxic to fermenting Staphylococcus aureus. Mike LA, Dutter BF, Stauff DL, Moore JL, Vitko NP, Aranmolate O, Kehl-Fie TE, Sullivan S, Reid PR, DuBois JL, Richardson AR, Caprioli RM, Sulikowski GA, Skaar EP (2013) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(20): 8206-11
    › Primary publication · 23630262 (PubMed) · PMC3657828 (PubMed Central)
  98. Powerful genetic resource for the study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Hammer ND, Skaar EP (2013) mBio 4(2)
    › Primary publication · 23549918 (PubMed) · PMC3622929 (PubMed Central)
  99. Molecular basis for manganese sequestration by calprotectin and roles in the innate immune response to invading bacterial pathogens. Damo SM, Kehl-Fie TE, Sugitani N, Holt ME, Rathi S, Murphy WJ, Zhang Y, Betz C, Hench L, Fritz G, Skaar EP, Chazin WJ (2013) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(10): 3841-6
    › Primary publication · 23431180 (PubMed) · PMC3593839 (PubMed Central)
  100. Staphylococcus aureus growth using human hemoglobin as an iron source. Pishchany G, Haley KP, Skaar EP (2013) J Vis Exp (72)
    › Primary publication · 23426144 (PubMed) · PMC3600743 (PubMed Central)
  101. Genomic and functional analysis of the type VI secretion system in Acinetobacter. Weber BS, Miyata ST, Iwashkiw JA, Mortensen BL, Skaar EP, Pukatzki S, Feldman MF (2013) PLoS One 8(1): e55142
    › Primary publication · 23365692 (PubMed) · PMC3554697 (PubMed Central)
  102. Identification of an Acinetobacter baumannii zinc acquisition system that facilitates resistance to calprotectin-mediated zinc sequestration. Hood MI, Mortensen BL, Moore JL, Zhang Y, Kehl-Fie TE, Sugitani N, Chazin WJ, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP (2012) PLoS Pathog 8(12): e1003068
    › Primary publication · 23236280 (PubMed) · PMC3516566 (PubMed Central)
  103. genetic determinants of intrinsic colistin tolerance in Acinetobacter baumannii. Hood MI, Becker KW, Roux CM, Dunman PM, Skaar EP (2013) Infect Immun 81(2): 542-51
    › Primary publication · 23230287 (PubMed) · PMC3553813 (PubMed Central)
  104. Menaquinone biosynthesis potentiates haem toxicity in Staphylococcus aureus. Wakeman CA, Hammer ND, Stauff DL, Attia AS, Anzaldi LL, Dikalov SI, Calcutt MW, Skaar EP (2012) Mol Microbiol 86(6): 1376-92
    › Primary publication · 23043465 (PubMed) · PMC3524387 (PubMed Central)
  105. Haemin represses the haemolytic activity of Staphylococcus aureus in an Sae-dependent manner. Schmitt J, Joost I, Skaar EP, Herrmann M, Bischoff M (2012) Microbiology (Reading) 158(Pt 10): 2619-2631
    › Primary publication · 22859613 (PubMed) · PMC4083625 (PubMed Central)
  106. Nutritional immunity: transition metals at the pathogen-host interface. Hood MI, Skaar EP (2012) Nat Rev Microbiol 10(8): 525-37
    › Primary publication · 22796883 (PubMed) · PMC3875331 (PubMed Central)
  107. Monitoring the inflammatory response to infection through the integration of MALDI IMS and MRI. Attia AS, Schroeder KA, Seeley EH, Wilson KJ, Hammer ND, Colvin DC, Manier ML, Nicklay JJ, Rose KL, Gore JC, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP (2012) Cell Host Microbe 11(6): 664-73
    › Primary publication · 22704626 (PubMed) · PMC3377982 (PubMed Central)
  108. Host-microbe interactions that shape the pathogenesis of Acinetobacter baumannii infection. Mortensen BL, Skaar EP (2012) Cell Microbiol 14(9): 1336-44
    › Primary publication · 22640368 (PubMed) · PMC3781221 (PubMed Central)
  109. Inhibition of bacterial superoxide defense: a new front in the struggle between host and pathogen. Damo S, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP, Kehl-Fie TE (2012) Virulence 3(3): 325-8
    › Primary publication · 22546907 (PubMed) · PMC3442845 (PubMed Central)
  110. Zinc sequestration by the neutrophil protein calprotectin enhances Salmonella growth in the inflamed gut. Liu JZ, Jellbauer S, Poe AJ, Ton V, Pesciaroli M, Kehl-Fie TE, Restrepo NA, Hosking MP, Edwards RA, Battistoni A, Pasquali P, Lane TE, Chazin WJ, Vogl T, Roth J, Skaar EP, Raffatellu M (2012) Cell Host Microbe 11(3): 227-39
    › Primary publication · 22423963 (PubMed) · PMC3308348 (PubMed Central)
  111. Taste for blood: hemoglobin as a nutrient source for pathogens. Pishchany G, Skaar EP (2012) PLoS Pathog 8(3): e1002535
    › Primary publication · 22412370 (PubMed) · PMC3297580 (PubMed Central)
  112. Metalloregulation of Gram-positive pathogen physiology. Wakeman CA, Skaar EP (2012) Curr Opin Microbiol 15(2): 169-74
    › Primary publication · 22155062 (PubMed) · PMC3306535 (PubMed Central)
  113. The impact of metal sequestration on Staphylococcus aureus metabolism. Hammer ND, Skaar EP (2012) Curr Opin Microbiol 15(1): 10-4
    › Primary publication · 22153710 (PubMed) · PMC3265625 (PubMed Central)
  114. A battle for iron: host sequestration and Staphylococcus aureus acquisition. Haley KP, Skaar EP (2012) Microbes Infect 14(3): 217-27
    › Primary publication · 22123296 (PubMed) · PMC3785375 (PubMed Central)
  115. Metal ion acquisition in Staphylococcus aureus: overcoming nutritional immunity. Cassat JE, Skaar EP (2012) Semin Immunopathol 34(2): 215-35
    › Primary publication · 22048835 (PubMed) · PMC3796439 (PubMed Central)
  116. Structural basis for hemoglobin capture by Staphylococcus aureus cell-surface protein, IsdH. Krishna Kumar K, Jacques DA, Pishchany G, Caradoc-Davies T, Spirig T, Malmirchegini GR, Langley DB, Dickson CF, Mackay JP, Clubb RT, Skaar EP, Guss JM, Gell DA (2011) J Biol Chem 286(44): 38439-38447
    › Primary publication · 21917915 (PubMed) · PMC3207429 (PubMed Central)
  117. The evolution of a superbug: how Staphylococcus aureus overcomes its unique susceptibility to polyamines. Anzaldi LL, Skaar EP (2011) Mol Microbiol 82(1): 1-3
    › Primary publication · 21883524 (PubMed)
  118. Nutrient metal sequestration by calprotectin inhibits bacterial superoxide defense, enhancing neutrophil killing of Staphylococcus aureus. Kehl-Fie TE, Chitayat S, Hood MI, Damo S, Restrepo N, Garcia C, Munro KA, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP (2011) Cell Host Microbe 10(2): 158-64
    › Primary publication · 21843872 (PubMed) · PMC3157011 (PubMed Central)
  119. Staphylococcus lugdunensis IsdG liberates iron from host heme. Haley KP, Janson EM, Heilbronner S, Foster TJ, Skaar EP (2011) J Bacteriol 193(18): 4749-57
    › Primary publication · 21764939 (PubMed) · PMC3165669 (PubMed Central)
  120. The flexible loop of Staphylococcus aureus IsdG is required for its degradation in the absence of heme. Reniere ML, Haley KP, Skaar EP (2011) Biochemistry 50(31): 6730-7
    › Primary publication · 21728357 (PubMed) · PMC3149779 (PubMed Central)
  121. Molecular mechanisms of Staphylococcus aureus iron acquisition. Hammer ND, Skaar EP (2011) Annu Rev Microbiol : 129-47
    › Primary publication · 21639791 (PubMed) · PMC3807827 (PubMed Central)
  122. Small molecule inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus RnpA alter cellular mRNA turnover, exhibit antimicrobial activity, and attenuate pathogenesis. Olson PD, Kuechenmeister LJ, Anderson KL, Daily S, Beenken KE, Roux CM, Reniere ML, Lewis TL, Weiss WJ, Pulse M, Nguyen P, Simecka JW, Morrison JM, Sayood K, Asojo OA, Smeltzer MS, Skaar EP, Dunman PM (2011) PLoS Pathog 7(2): e1001287
    › Primary publication · 21347352 (PubMed) · PMC3037362 (PubMed Central)
  123. Control of copper resistance and inorganic sulfur metabolism by paralogous regulators in Staphylococcus aureus. Grossoehme N, Kehl-Fie TE, Ma Z, Adams KW, Cowart DM, Scott RA, Skaar EP, Giedroc DP (2011) J Biol Chem 286(15): 13522-31
    › Primary publication · 21339296 (PubMed) · PMC3075698 (PubMed Central)