Alexander Gelbard
Last active: 7/30/2020


Dr.Gelbard's research team studies obstructive fibrotic diseases in the larynx and trachea (collectively termed laryngotracheal stenosis, i.e. LTS). LTS can occur without known antecedent injury (idiopathic subglottic stenosis:iSGS), it also can accompany collagen vascular disease (e.g. Granulomatosis with polyangitis: GPA) or follow iatrogenic injury (e.g., post-intubation stenosis). Dr. Gelbard's research team employs a unique combination of genetic, molecular, and epidemiologic based approaches to investigate the critical factors underlying the pathogenesis and outcomes of LTS. 



The following timeline graph is generated from all co-authored publications.

Featured publications are shown below:

  1. The Proximal Airway Is a Reservoir for Adaptive Immunologic Memory in Idiopathic Subglottic Stenosis. Gelbard A, Wanjalla C, Wootten CT, Drake WP, Lowery AS, Wheeler DA, Cardenas MF, Sikora AG, Pathak RR, McDonnell W, Mallal S, Pilkinton M (2021) Laryngoscope 131(3): 610-617
    › Primary publication · 32603507 (PubMed) · PMC7951501 (PubMed Central)
  2. Familial Aggregation in Idiopathic Subglottic Stenosis. Drake VE, Gelbard A, Sobriera N, Wohler E, Berry LL, Hussain LL, Hillel A (2020) Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 163(5): 1011-1017
    › Primary publication · 32600122 (PubMed) · PMC7809487 (PubMed Central)
  3. Increased Expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in Patients With Laryngotracheal Stenosis. Davis RJ, Lina I, Ding D, Engle EL, Taube J, Gelbard A, Hillel AT (2021) Laryngoscope 131(5): 967-974
    › Primary publication · 32557663 (PubMed) · PMC7817064 (PubMed Central)
  4. Laryngotracheal Mucosal Surface Expression of Candidate Biomarkers in Idiopathic Subglottic Stenosis. Liu MM, Motz KM, Murphy MK, Yin LX, Ding D, Gelbard A, Hillel AT (2021) Laryngoscope 131(2): 342-349
    › Primary publication · 32369195 (PubMed) · PMC7641987 (PubMed Central)
  5. The authors reply. Shinn JR, Campbell BR, Ely EW, Gelbard A (2020) Crit Care Med 48(5): e431
    › Primary publication · 32301783 (PubMed)
  6. Unilateral Vocal Fold Immobility-More Common Than We Think?-Reply. Campbell BR, Shinn JR, Gelbard A (2020) JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 146(6): 588
    › Primary publication · 32215606 (PubMed)
  7. The authors reply. Shinn JR, Campbell BR, Ely EW, Gelbard A (2020) Crit Care Med 48(4): e338-e339
    › Primary publication · 32205633 (PubMed)
  8. Adult Aortotracheal Fistula as Sequela of Double Aortic Arch Repair in Infancy: A Case Report. Rees AB, Rodney JP, Gilbert MR, Kaiser CA, Gelbard AH (2020) Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 129(7): 649-652
    › Primary publication · 32005077 (PubMed)
  9. Unilateral Vocal Fold Immobility After Prolonged Endotracheal Intubation. Campbell BR, Shinn JR, Kimura KS, Lowery AS, Casey JD, Ely EW, Gelbard A (2020) JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 146(2): 160-167
    › Primary publication · 31855261 (PubMed) · PMC6990766 (PubMed Central)
  10. The Incidence of Laryngotracheal Stenosis in Neonates With a History of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia. Lowery AS, Gelbard A, Wootten C (2020) Laryngoscope 130(9): 2252-2255
    › Primary publication · 31800102 (PubMed) · PMC7302688 (PubMed Central)
  11. Comparative Treatment Outcomes for Patients With Idiopathic Subglottic Stenosis. Gelbard A, Anderson C, Berry LD, Amin MR, Benninger MS, Blumin JH, Bock JM, Bryson PC, Castellanos PF, Chen SC, Clary MS, Cohen SM, Crawley BK, Dailey SH, Daniero JJ, de Alarcon A, Donovan DT, Edell ES, Ekbom DC, Fernandes-Taylor S, Fink DS, Franco RA, Garrett CG, Guardiani EA, Hillel AT, Hoffman HT, Hogikyan ND, Howell RJ, Huang LC, Hussain LK, Johns MM, Kasperbauer JL, Khosla SM, Kinnard C, Kupfer RA, Langerman AJ, Lentz RJ, Lorenz RR, Lott DG, Lowery AS, Makani SS, Maldonado F, Mannion K, Matrka L, McWhorter AJ, Merati AL, Mori MC, Netterville JL, O'Dell K, Ongkasuwan J, Postma GN, Reder LS, Rohde SL, Richardson BE, Rickman OB, Rosen CA, Rutter MJ, Sandhu GS, Schindler JS, Schneider GT, Shah RN, Sikora AG, Sinard RJ, Smith ME, Smith LJ, Soliman AMS, Sveinsdóttir S, Van Daele DJ, Veivers D, Verma SP, Weinberger PM, Weissbrod PA, Wootten CT, Shyr Y, Francis DO (2020) JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 146(1): 20-29
    › Primary publication · 31670805 (PubMed) · PMC6824232 (PubMed Central)
  12. Incidence and Outcomes of Acute Laryngeal Injury After Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation. Shinn JR, Kimura KS, Campbell BR, Sun Lowery A, Wootten CT, Garrett CG, Francis DO, Hillel AT, Du L, Casey JD, Ely EW, Gelbard A (2019) Crit Care Med 47(12): 1699-1706
    › Primary publication · 31634236 (PubMed) · PMC7880159 (PubMed Central)
  13. Epiglottitis. Chapurin N, Gelbard A (2019) N Engl J Med 381(9): e15
    › Primary publication · 31461597 (PubMed)
  14. Open Airway Surgery in a Paraplegic: The Importance of an Adequate Cough. Amin SN, Rodney JP, Gelbard A (2019) Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 128(12): 1194-1197
    › Primary publication · 31364384 (PubMed)
  15. The impact of social determinants of health on laryngotracheal stenosis development and outcomes. Dang S, Shinn JR, Campbell BR, Garrett G, Wootten C, Gelbard A (2020) Laryngoscope 130(4): 1000-1006
    › Primary publication · 31355958 (PubMed) · PMC7808241 (PubMed Central)
  16. Early medical therapy for acute laryngeal injury (ALgI) following endotracheal intubation: a protocol for a prospective single-centre randomised controlled trial. Lowery AS, Kimura K, Shinn J, Shannon C, Gelbard A (2019) BMJ Open 9(7): e027963
    › Primary publication · 31352415 (PubMed) · PMC6661707 (PubMed Central)
  17. Incidence of Laryngotracheal Stenosis after Thermal Inhalation Airway Injury. Lowery AS, Dion G, Thompson C, Weavind L, Shinn J, McGrane S, Summitt B, Gelbard A (2019) J Burn Care Res 40(6): 961-965
    › Primary publication · 31332446 (PubMed)
  18. Decoding phonation with artificial intelligence (DeP AI): Proof of concept. Powell ME, Rodriguez Cancio M, Young D, Nock W, Abdelmessih B, Zeller A, Perez Morales I, Zhang P, Garrett CG, Schmidt D, White J, Gelbard A (2019) Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol 4(3): 328-334
    › Primary publication · 31236467 (PubMed) · PMC6580072 (PubMed Central)
  19. Subglottic stenosis and endobronchial disease in granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Quinn KA, Gelbard A, Sibley C, Sirajuddin A, Ferrada MA, Chen M, Cuthbertson D, Carette S, Khalidi NA, Koening CL, Langford CA, McAlear CA, Monach PA, Moreland LW, Pagnoux C, Seo P, Specks U, Sreih AG, Ytterberg SR, Merkel PA, Grayson PC (2019) Rheumatology (Oxford) 58(12): 2203-2211
    › Primary publication · 31199488 (PubMed) · PMC7967893 (PubMed Central)
  20. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Surgical Approaches to Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility. Rios G, Morrison RJ, Song Y, Fernando SJ, Wootten C, Gelbard A, Luo H (2020) Laryngoscope 130(2): E57-E64
    › Primary publication · 30883777 (PubMed)
  21. Laryngotracheal Reconstruction in Adults Aged 60 Years and Older. Rehman SC, Xie DX, Bekeny JR, Gelbard A, Wootten CT (2019) Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 160(6): 1065-1070
    › Primary publication · 30717620 (PubMed)
  22. Association Between Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Outcomes of Open Airway Reconstruction Surgery in Adults. Xie DX, Rehman SC, Francis DO, Netterville JL, Garrett CG, Gelbard A, Lipscomb B, Wootten CT (2019) JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 145(3): 210-215
    › Primary publication · 30629096 (PubMed) · PMC6439750 (PubMed Central)
  23. The Online Support Group as a Community: A Thematic Content Analysis of an Online Support Group for Idiopathic Subglottic Stenosis. Haik D, Kashanchi K, Tajran S, Heilbronn C, Anderson C, Francis DO, Gelbard A, Verma SP (2019) Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 128(4): 293-299
    › Primary publication · 30607984 (PubMed)
  24. Health Care Costs and Cost-effectiveness in Laryngotracheal Stenosis. Yin LX, Padula WV, Gadkaree S, Motz K, Rahman S, Predmore Z, Gelbard A, Hillel AT (2019) Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 160(4): 679-686
    › Primary publication · 30481123 (PubMed) · PMC6443425 (PubMed Central)
  25. Early Surgical Management of Thermal Airway Injury: A Case Series. Jayawardena A, Lowery AS, Wootten C, Dion GR, Summitt JB, McGrane S, Gelbard A (2019) J Burn Care Res 40(2): 189-195
    › Primary publication · 30445620 (PubMed) · PMC7359921 (PubMed Central)
  26. Utility of Routine Spirometry Measures for Surveillance of Idiopathic Subglottic Stenosis. Carpenter DJ, Ferrante S, Bakos SR, Clary MS, Gelbard AH, Daniero JJ (2019) JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 145(1): 21-26
    › Primary publication · 30383170 (PubMed) · PMC6439814 (PubMed Central)
  27. Height is an independent risk factor for postintubation laryngeal injury. Katsantonis NG, Kabagambe EK, Wootten CT, Ely EW, Francis DO, Gelbard A (2018) Laryngoscope 128(12): 2811-2814
    › Primary publication · 30325034 (PubMed)
  28. Pathologic Fibroblasts in Idiopathic Subglottic Stenosis Amplify Local Inflammatory Signals. Morrison RJ, Katsantonis NG, Motz KM, Hillel AT, Garrett CG, Netterville JL, Wootten CT, Majka SM, Blackwell TS, Drake WP, Gelbard A (2019) Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 160(1): 107-115
    › Primary publication · 30322354 (PubMed) · PMC6389372 (PubMed Central)
  29. Outcomes in Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis. Gadkaree SK, Gelbard A, Best SR, Akst LM, Brodsky M, Hillel AT (2018) Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg : 194599818800462
    › Primary publication · 30223764 (PubMed) · PMC6422766 (PubMed Central)
  30. Oropharyngeal Injury From Spontaneous Combustion of a Lithium-ion Battery: A Case Report. Morse J, Tittman S, Gelbard A (2019) Laryngoscope 129(1): 45-48
    › Primary publication · 30194845 (PubMed)
  31. Laryngeal Cryptococcoma Resulting in Airway Compromise in an Immunocompetent Patient: A Case Report. Morse JC, Gelbard A (2019) Laryngoscope 129(4): 926-929
    › Primary publication · 30152047 (PubMed)
  32. Treatment options in idiopathic subglottic stenosis: protocol for a prospective international multicentre pragmatic trial. Gelbard A, Shyr Y, Berry L, Hillel AT, Ekbom DC, Edell ES, Kasperbauer JL, Lott DG, Donovan DT, Garrett CG, Sandhu G, Daniero JJ, Netterville JL, Schindler JS, Smith ME, Bryson PC, Lorenz RR, Francis DO (2018) BMJ Open 8(4): e022243
    › Primary publication · 29643170 (PubMed) · PMC5898326 (PubMed Central)
  33. A Case Series of the Probability Density and Cumulative Distribution of Laryngeal Disease in a Tertiary Care Voice Center. de la Fuente J, Garrett CG, Ossoff R, Vinson K, Francis DO, Gelbard A (2017) Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 126(11): 748-754
    › Primary publication · 28949246 (PubMed)
  34. Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Upper Airway-Related Dyspnea: A Systematic Review. Noud M, Hovis K, Gelbard A, Sathe NA, Penson DF, Feurer ID, McPheeters ML, Francis DO (2017) JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 143(8): 824-831
    › Primary publication · 28594976 (PubMed) · PMC5604091 (PubMed Central)
  35. Inaugural Symposium on Advanced Surgical Techniques in Adult Airway Reconstruction: Proceedings of the North American Airway Collaborative (NoAAC). Daniero JJ, Ekbom DC, Gelbard A, Akst LM, Hillel AT (2017) JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 143(6): 609-613
    › Primary publication · 28418443 (PubMed) · PMC5518235 (PubMed Central)
  36. Tracheocutaneous fistula repair with autologous auricular cartilage cap graft. Yawn RJ, Yawn JR, Gelbard A, Wootten CT (2016) Laryngoscope 126(9): 2085-8
    › Primary publication · 27297140 (PubMed)
  37. Idiopathic subglottic stenosis is associated with activation of the inflammatory IL-17A/IL-23 axis. Gelbard A, Katsantonis NG, Mizuta M, Newcomb D, Rotsinger J, Rousseau B, Daniero JJ, Edell ES, Ekbom DC, Kasperbauer JL, Hillel AT, Yang L, Garrett CG, Netterville JL, Wootten CT, Francis DO, Stratton C, Jenkins K, McGregor TL, Gaddy JA, Blackwell TS, Drake WP (2016) Laryngoscope 126(11): E356-E361
    › Primary publication · 27296163 (PubMed) · PMC5077677 (PubMed Central)
  38. Molecular analysis of idiopathic subglottic stenosis for Mycobacterium species. Gelbard A, Katsantonis NG, Mizuta M, Newcomb D, Rotsinger J, Rousseau B, Daniero JJ, Edell ES, Ekbom DC, Kasperbauer JL, Hillel AT, Yang L, Garrett CG, Netterville JL, Wootten CT, Francis DO, Stratton C, Jenkins K, McGregor TL, Gaddy JA, Blackwell TS, Drake WP (2017) Laryngoscope 127(1): 179-185
    › Primary publication · 27295947 (PubMed) · PMC5156582 (PubMed Central)
  39. Dysphagia Following Airway Reconstruction in Adults. Lennon CJ, Gelbard A, Bartow C, Garrett CG, Netterville JL, Wootten CT (2016) JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 142(1): 20-4
    › Primary publication · 26561927 (PubMed)
  40. Novel application of the Sonopet for endoscopic posterior split and cartilage graft laryngoplasty. Yawn RJ, Daniero JJ, Gelbard A, Wootten CT (2016) Laryngoscope 126(4): 941-4
    › Primary publication · 26541889 (PubMed)
  41. Disease homogeneity and treatment heterogeneity in idiopathic subglottic stenosis. Gelbard A, Donovan DT, Ongkasuwan J, Nouraei SA, Sandhu G, Benninger MS, Bryson PC, Lorenz RR, Tierney WS, Hillel AT, Gadkaree SK, Lott DG, Edell ES, Ekbom DC, Kasperbauer JL, Maldonado F, Schindler JS, Smith ME, Daniero JJ, Garrett CG, Netterville JL, Rickman OB, Sinard RJ, Wootten CT, Francis DO (2016) Laryngoscope 126(6): 1390-6
    › Primary publication · 26536285 (PubMed) · PMC6198250 (PubMed Central)
  42. Severe bradycardia associated with suspension laryngoscopy. Latuska RF, Kuhl NO, Garrett CG, Berry JM, Gelbard A (2016) Laryngoscope 126(4): 949-50
    › Primary publication · 26526978 (PubMed)
  43. Predictors of Posterior Glottic Stenosis: A Multi-Institutional Case-Control Study. Hillel AT, Karatayli-Ozgursoy S, Samad I, Best SR, Pandian V, Giraldez L, Gross J, Wootten C, Gelbard A, Akst LM, Johns MM, North American Airway Collaborative (NoAAC) (2016) Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 125(3): 257-63
    › Primary publication · 26466860 (PubMed) · PMC4742396 (PubMed Central)
  44. Unleashing rapamycin in fibrosis. Hillel AT, Gelbard A (2015) Oncotarget 6(18): 15722-3
    › Primary publication · 26158293 (PubMed) · PMC4599220 (PubMed Central)
  45. Effect of injection augmentation on need for framework surgery in unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Francis DO, Williamson K, Hovis K, Gelbard A, Merati AL, Penson DF, Netterville JL, Garrett CG (2016) Laryngoscope 126(1): 128-34
    › Primary publication · 26153268 (PubMed) · PMC4704988 (PubMed Central)
  46. Causes and consequences of adult laryngotracheal stenosis. Gelbard A, Francis DO, Sandulache VC, Simmons JC, Donovan DT, Ongkasuwan J (2015) Laryngoscope 125(5): 1137-43
    › Primary publication · 25290987 (PubMed) · PMC4562418 (PubMed Central)
  47. Impact of race/ethnicity on laryngeal cancer in patients treated at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Sandulache VC, Kubik MW, Skinner HD, Malsky JA, Gelbard AH, Zevallos JP (2013) Laryngoscope 123(9): 2170-5
    › Primary publication · 23729204 (PubMed)
  48. Molecular profiling of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. Gelbard A, Hale KS, Takahashi Y, Davies M, Kupferman ME, El-Naggar AK, Myers JN, Hanna EY (2014) Head Neck 36(1): 15-21
    › Primary publication · 23633104 (PubMed) · PMC3874284 (PubMed Central)
  49. Establishment and characterization of novel cell lines from sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. Takahashi Y, Kupferman ME, Bell D, Jiffar T, Lee JG, Xie TX, Li NW, Zhao M, Frederick MJ, Gelbard A, Myers JN, Hanna EY (2012) Clin Cancer Res 18(22): 6178-87
    › Primary publication · 23032744 (PubMed) · PMC3513379 (PubMed Central)
  50. Agonistic antibody to CD40 boosts the antitumor activity of adoptively transferred T cells in vivo. Liu C, Lewis CM, Lou Y, Xu C, Peng W, Yang Y, Gelbard AH, Lizée G, Zhou D, Overwijk WW, Hwu P (2012) J Immunother 35(3): 276-82
    › Primary publication · 22421945 (PubMed) · PMC3860320 (PubMed Central)
  51. Cell-intrinsic role for IFN-α-STAT1 signals in regulating murine Peyer patch plasmacytoid dendritic cells and conditioning an inflammatory response. Li HS, Gelbard A, Martinez GJ, Esashi E, Zhang H, Nguyen-Jackson H, Liu YJ, Overwijk WW, Watowich SS (2011) Blood 118(14): 3879-89
    › Primary publication · 21828128 (PubMed) · PMC3193265 (PubMed Central)
  52. An information theoretic, microfluidic-based single cell analysis permits identification of subpopulations among putatively homogeneous stem cells. Glotzbach JP, Januszyk M, Vial IN, Wong VW, Gelbard A, Kalisky T, Thangarajah H, Longaker MT, Quake SR, Chu G, Gurtner GC (2011) PLoS One 6(6): e21211
    › Primary publication · 21731674 (PubMed) · PMC3120839 (PubMed Central)
  53. Antitumor activity mediated by CpG: the route of administration is critical. Lou Y, Liu C, Lizée G, Peng W, Xu C, Ye Y, Rabinovich BA, Hailemichael Y, Gelbard A, Zhou D, Overwijk WW, Hwu P (2011) J Immunother 34(3): 279-88
    › Primary publication · 21389870 (PubMed) · PMC6119202 (PubMed Central)
  54. Inhibition of p-STAT3 enhances IFN-alpha efficacy against metastatic melanoma in a murine model. Kong LY, Gelbard A, Wei J, Reina-Ortiz C, Wang Y, Yang EC, Hailemichael Y, Fokt I, Jayakumar A, Qiao W, Fuller GN, Overwijk WW, Priebe W, Heimberger AB (2010) Clin Cancer Res 16(9): 2550-61
    › Primary publication · 20388845 (PubMed) · PMC2936966 (PubMed Central)
  55. Targeted inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibits growth of human melanoma in vivo and synergizes with chemotherapy. Sikora AG, Gelbard A, Davies MA, Sano D, Ekmekcioglu S, Kwon J, Hailemichael Y, Jayaraman P, Myers JN, Grimm EA, Overwijk WW (2010) Clin Cancer Res 16(6): 1834-44
    › Primary publication · 20215556 (PubMed) · PMC2858983 (PubMed Central)
  56. IFN-alpha enhances peptide vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell numbers, effector function, and antitumor activity. Sikora AG, Jaffarzad N, Hailemichael Y, Gelbard A, Stonier SW, Schluns KS, Frasca L, Lou Y, Liu C, Andersson HA, Hwu P, Overwijk WW (2009) J Immunol 182(12): 7398-407
    › Primary publication · 19494262 (PubMed) · PMC2774140 (PubMed Central)
  57. Nanoparticle formulated alpha-galactosylceramide activates NKT cells without inducing anergy. Thapa P, Zhang G, Xia C, Gelbard A, Overwijk WW, Liu C, Hwu P, Chang DZ, Courtney A, Sastry JK, Wang PG, Li C, Zhou D (2009) Vaccine 27(25-26): 3484-8
    › Primary publication · 19200815 (PubMed) · PMC5772602 (PubMed Central)
  58. An orthotopic murine model of sinonasal malignancy. Gelbard A, Kupferman ME, Jasser SA, Chen W, El-Naggar AK, Myers JN, Hanna EY (2008) Clin Cancer Res 14(22): 7348-57
    › Primary publication · 19010850 (PubMed) · PMC5428892 (PubMed Central)
  59. Use of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody to enhance vaccine-mediated antitumor effects. Chakraborty M, Gelbard A, Carrasquillo JA, Yu S, Mamede M, Paik CH, Camphausen K, Schlom J, Hodge JW (2008) Cancer Immunol Immunother 57(8): 1173-83
    › Primary publication · 18256832 (PubMed)
  60. Combination chemotherapy and radiation of human squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck augments CTL-mediated lysis. Gelbard A, Garnett CT, Abrams SI, Patel V, Gutkind JS, Palena C, Tsang KY, Schlom J, Hodge JW (2006) Clin Cancer Res 12(6): 1897-905
    › Primary publication · 16551875 (PubMed) · PMC1865094 (PubMed Central)