Justin Balko
Faculty Member
Last active: 10/8/2021


Our laboratory is focused on improving treatment outcomes in breast cancer (particularly triple-negative breast cancer) as well as in other solid tumors through translational approaches. To accomplish this, we integrate data from genomic and molecular profiling studies with molecular biology and signal transduction methodologies to identify altered pathways in cancer, the functional consequences of these alterations, and ways to directly target them in patients to improve clinical outcomes and survival. These efforts span in silico (publicly available databases), in vitro (cell culture), in vivo (mouse and human clinical studies) and in situ (histology) methods. 

There are several primary focuses of the laboratory: 

1) How do tumor cells evade the immune system in cancer, and how can we target these mechanisms? 

We have a strong interest in the intersection between new immunotherapies and tumor cell signaling pathways. We have identified several molecular pathways that are hijacked by tumor cells in order to suppress antigen presentation, which is required for effective immunologic elimination of tumor cells. Pharmacological inhibition of these pathways can restore antigen presentation, and potentiate anti-tumor immunity. However, the mechanisms by which tumor cells evade the immune system are largely unknown. The goal of this focus is to identify these mechanisms and validate approaches to inhibit them for the benefit of patients. 

2) What molecular features or biomarkers can identify patients most likely to benefit from immunotherapy? 

Immunotherapies have the potential to transform cancer therapy, but not all patients respond, and these drugs are incredibly costly and not without their toxicities (see #3). Thus, identifying patients most likely to benefit from immunotherapy early on, or a priori, could be incredibly valuable in triaging patients unlikely to respond to other therapies from which they are more likely to derive benefit. The discovery of molecular markers of response to immunotherapies is a major focus of the laboratory. We recently identified competence in class-II antigen presentation as a major predictor of outcome in patients treated with anti-PD-1 therapy, and are now exploring the functionality of MHC-II expression as a mediator of anti-tumor immunity. 

3) What causes autoimmune-like toxicities in patients treated with immunotherapy? 

As mentioned above, immunotherapies have the potential to cause rare, but severe toxicities, sometimes resulting in treatment-related mortality. Understanding the mechanisms behind immunotherapy-induced autoimmunity and the molecular features of patients who exhibit them is critical area of need. Through high level molecular profiling of peripheral blood, tumors, and immune-related adverse event-affected organs, we hope to uncover hints as to why some patients exhibit these toxicities, and try to model these toxicities in the laboratory


The following timeline graph is generated from all co-authored publications.

Featured publications are shown below:

  1. A Critical Need for Better Cancer Immunotherapy Models: Are Organotypic Tumor Spheroid Cultures the Answer? Balko JM, Sosman JA (2018) Cancer Discov 8(2): 143-145
    › Primary publication · 29431673 (PubMed)
  2. DNA methyltransferase inhibition upregulates MHC-I to potentiate cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in breast cancer. Luo N, Nixon MJ, Gonzalez-Ericsson PI, Sanchez V, Opalenik SR, Li H, Zahnow CA, Nickels ML, Liu F, Tantawy MN, Sanders ME, Manning HC, Balko JM (2018) Nat Commun 9(1): 248
    › Primary publication · 29339738 (PubMed) · PMC5770411 (PubMed Central)
  3. Biomarkers for assessing the effectiveness of immunotherapy in breast cancer. Nixon MJ, Balko JM (2018) Biomark Med 12(2): 97-100
    › Primary publication · 29338306 (PubMed)
  4. C2 Domain Deletions Hyperactivate Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Generate Oncogene Dependence, and Are Exquisitely Sensitive to PI3K Inhibitors. Croessmann S, Sheehan JH, Lee KM, Sliwoski G, He J, Nagy R, Riddle D, Mayer IA, Balko JM, Lanman R, Miller VA, Cantley LC, Meiler J, Arteaga CL (2018) Clin Cancer Res 24(6): 1426-1435
    › Primary publication · 29284706 (PubMed) · PMC5856622 (PubMed Central)
  5. MYC and MCL1 Cooperatively Promote Chemotherapy-Resistant Breast Cancer Stem Cells via Regulation of Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation. Lee KM, Giltnane JM, Balko JM, Schwarz LJ, Guerrero-Zotano AL, Hutchinson KE, Nixon MJ, Estrada MV, Sánchez V, Sanders ME, Lee T, Gómez H, Lluch A, Pérez-Fidalgo JA, Wolf MM, Andrejeva G, Rathmell JC, Fesik SW, Arteaga CL (2017) Cell Metab 26(4): 633-647.e7
    › Primary publication · 28978427 (PubMed) · PMC5650077 (PubMed Central)
  6. Agonist immunotherapy restores T cell function following MEK inhibition improving efficacy in breast cancer. Dushyanthen S, Teo ZL, Caramia F, Savas P, Mintoff CP, Virassamy B, Henderson MA, Luen SJ, Mansour M, Kershaw MH, Trapani JA, Neeson PJ, Salgado R, McArthur GA, Balko JM, Beavis PA, Darcy PK, Loi S (2017) Nat Commun 8(1): 606
    › Primary publication · 28928458 (PubMed) · PMC5605577 (PubMed Central)
  7. Emerging biomarkers for cancer immunotherapy in melanoma. Axelrod ML, Johnson DB, Balko JM (2018) Semin Cancer Biol 52(Pt 2): 207-215
    › Primary publication · 28917578 (PubMed) · PMC5851807 (PubMed Central)
  8. ErbB3 drives mammary epithelial survival and differentiation during pregnancy and lactation. Williams MM, Vaught DB, Joly MM, Hicks DJ, Sanchez V, Owens P, Rahman B, Elion DL, Balko JM, Cook RS (2017) Breast Cancer Res 19(1): 105
    › Primary publication · 28886748 (PubMed) · PMC5591538 (PubMed Central)
  9. Genomic profiling of ER breast cancers after short-term estrogen suppression reveals alterations associated with endocrine resistance. Giltnane JM, Hutchinson KE, Stricker TP, Formisano L, Young CD, Estrada MV, Nixon MJ, Du L, Sanchez V, Ericsson PG, Kuba MG, Sanders ME, Mu XJ, Van Allen EM, Wagle N, Mayer IA, Abramson V, Gόmez H, Rizzo M, Toy W, Chandarlapaty S, Mayer EL, Christiansen J, Murphy D, Fitzgerald K, Wang K, Ross JS, Miller VA, Stephens PJ, Yelensky R, Garraway L, Shyr Y, Meszoely I, Balko JM, Arteaga CL (2017) Sci Transl Med 9(402)
    › Primary publication · 28794284 (PubMed) · PMC5723145 (PubMed Central)
  10. Association of FGFR1 with ERα Maintains Ligand-Independent ER Transcription and Mediates Resistance to Estrogen Deprivation in ER Breast Cancer. Formisano L, Stauffer KM, Young CD, Bhola NE, Guerrero-Zotano AL, Jansen VM, Estrada MM, Hutchinson KE, Giltnane JM, Schwarz LJ, Lu Y, Balko JM, Deas O, Cairo S, Judde JG, Mayer IA, Sanders M, Dugger TC, Bianco R, Stricker T, Arteaga CL (2017) Clin Cancer Res 23(20): 6138-6150
    › Primary publication · 28751448 (PubMed) · PMC6681458 (PubMed Central)
  11. Targeting EphA2 impairs cell cycle progression and growth of basal-like/triple-negative breast cancers. Song W, Hwang Y, Youngblood VM, Cook RS, Balko JM, Chen J, Brantley-Sieders DM (2017) Oncogene 36(40): 5620-5630
    › Primary publication · 28581527 (PubMed) · PMC5629103 (PubMed Central)
  12. Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Analysis of PD-L1 Protein Expression, -glycosylation and Expression Stoichiometry with PD-1 and PD-L2 in Human Melanoma. Morales-Betanzos CA, Lee H, Gonzalez Ericsson PI, Balko JM, Johnson DB, Zimmerman LJ, Liebler DC (2017) Mol Cell Proteomics 16(10): 1705-1717
    › Primary publication · 28546465 (PubMed) · PMC5629259 (PubMed Central)
  13. Deep exploration of the immune infiltrate and outcome prediction in testicular cancer by quantitative multiplexed immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling. Siska PJ, Johnpulle RAN, Zhou A, Bordeaux J, Kim JY, Dabbas B, Dakappagari N, Rathmell JC, Rathmell WK, Morgans AK, Balko JM, Johnson DB (2017) Oncoimmunology 6(4): e1305535
    › Primary publication · 28507813 (PubMed) · PMC5414873 (PubMed Central)
  14. In silico evaluation of DNA Damage Inducible Transcript 4 gene (DDIT4) as prognostic biomarker in several malignancies. Pinto JA, Rolfo C, Raez LE, Prado A, Araujo JM, Bravo L, Fajardo W, Morante ZD, Aguilar A, Neciosup SP, Mas LA, Bretel D, Balko JM, Gomez HL (2017) Sci Rep 7(1): 1526
    › Primary publication · 28484222 (PubMed) · PMC5431475 (PubMed Central)
  15. WITHDRAWN: Quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of PD-L1 protein expression, N-glycosylation and expression stoichiometry with PD-1 and PD-L2 in human melanoma. Morales-Betanzos CA, Lee H, Gonzalez-Ericsson PI, Balko JM, Johnson DB, Zimmerman LJ, Liebler DC (2017) Mol Cell Proteomics
    › Primary publication · 28416578 (PubMed)
  16. Key Survival Factor, Mcl-1, Correlates with Sensitivity to Combined Bcl-2/Bcl-xL Blockade. Williams MM, Lee L, Hicks DJ, Joly MM, Elion D, Rahman B, McKernan C, Sanchez V, Balko JM, Stricker T, Estrada MV, Cook RS (2017) Mol Cancer Res 15(3): 259-268
    › Primary publication · 28039357 (PubMed) · PMC5334148 (PubMed Central)
  17. Fulminant Myocarditis with Combination Immune Checkpoint Blockade. Johnson DB, Balko JM, Compton ML, Chalkias S, Gorham J, Xu Y, Hicks M, Puzanov I, Alexander MR, Bloomer TL, Becker JR, Slosky DA, Phillips EJ, Pilkinton MA, Craig-Owens L, Kola N, Plautz G, Reshef DS, Deutsch JS, Deering RP, Olenchock BA, Lichtman AH, Roden DM, Seidman CE, Koralnik IJ, Seidman JG, Hoffman RD, Taube JM, Diaz LA, Anders RA, Sosman JA, Moslehi JJ (2016) N Engl J Med 375(18): 1749-1755
    › Primary publication · 27806233 (PubMed) · PMC5247797 (PubMed Central)
  18. Targeted Next Generation Sequencing Identifies Markers of Response to PD-1 Blockade. Johnson DB, Frampton GM, Rioth MJ, Yusko E, Xu Y, Guo X, Ennis RC, Fabrizio D, Chalmers ZR, Greenbowe J, Ali SM, Balasubramanian S, Sun JX, He Y, Frederick DT, Puzanov I, Balko JM, Cates JM, Ross JS, Sanders C, Robins H, Shyr Y, Miller VA, Stephens PJ, Sullivan RJ, Sosman JA, Lovly CM (2016) Cancer Immunol Res 4(11): 959-967
    › Primary publication · 27671167 (PubMed) · PMC5134329 (PubMed Central)
  19. Maybe we don't know JAK? Schwarz LJ, Balko JM (2016) Mol Cell Oncol 3(4): e1192713
    › Primary publication · 27652332 (PubMed) · PMC4972112 (PubMed Central)
  20. Triple-negative breast cancer: challenges and opportunities of a heterogeneous disease. Bianchini G, Balko JM, Mayer IA, Sanders ME, Gianni L (2016) Nat Rev Clin Oncol 13(11): 674-690
    › Primary publication · 27184417 (PubMed) · PMC5461122 (PubMed Central)
  21. A Phase Ib Study of Alpelisib (BYL719), a PI3Kα-Specific Inhibitor, with Letrozole in ER+/HER2- Metastatic Breast Cancer. Mayer IA, Abramson VG, Formisano L, Balko JM, Estrada MV, Sanders ME, Juric D, Solit D, Berger MF, Won HH, Li Y, Cantley LC, Winer E, Arteaga CL (2017) Clin Cancer Res 23(1): 26-34
    › Primary publication · 27126994 (PubMed) · PMC5085926 (PubMed Central)
  22. Comparative analysis of the GNAQ, GNA11, SF3B1, and EIF1AX driver mutations in melanoma and across the cancer spectrum. Johnson DB, Roszik J, Shoushtari AN, Eroglu Z, Balko JM, Higham C, Puzanov I, Patel SP, Sosman JA, Woodman SE (2016) Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 29(4): 470-3
    › Primary publication · 27089234 (PubMed) · PMC5678944 (PubMed Central)
  23. Triple-negative breast cancers with amplification of JAK2 at the 9p24 locus demonstrate JAK2-specific dependence. Balko JM, Schwarz LJ, Luo N, Estrada MV, Giltnane JM, Dávila-González D, Wang K, Sánchez V, Dean PT, Combs SE, Hicks D, Pinto JA, Landis MD, Doimi FD, Yelensky R, Miller VA, Stephens PJ, Rimm DL, Gómez H, Chang JC, Sanders ME, Cook RS, Arteaga CL (2016) Sci Transl Med 8(334): 334ra53
    › Primary publication · 27075627 (PubMed) · PMC5256931 (PubMed Central)
  24. Melanoma-specific MHC-II expression represents a tumour-autonomous phenotype and predicts response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. Johnson DB, Estrada MV, Salgado R, Sanchez V, Doxie DB, Opalenik SR, Vilgelm AE, Feld E, Johnson AS, Greenplate AR, Sanders ME, Lovly CM, Frederick DT, Kelley MC, Richmond A, Irish JM, Shyr Y, Sullivan RJ, Puzanov I, Sosman JA, Balko JM (2016) Nat Commun : 10582
    › Primary publication · 26822383 (PubMed) · PMC4740184 (PubMed Central)
  25. EPHA2 Blockade Overcomes Acquired Resistance to EGFR Kinase Inhibitors in Lung Cancer. Amato KR, Wang S, Tan L, Hastings AK, Song W, Lovly CM, Meador CB, Ye F, Lu P, Balko JM, Colvin DC, Cates JM, Pao W, Gray NS, Chen J (2016) Cancer Res 76(2): 305-18
    › Primary publication · 26744526 (PubMed) · PMC4715957 (PubMed Central)
  26. RAS/MAPK Activation Is Associated with Reduced Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Therapeutic Cooperation Between MEK and PD-1/PD-L1 Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors. Loi S, Dushyanthen S, Beavis PA, Salgado R, Denkert C, Savas P, Combs S, Rimm DL, Giltnane JM, Estrada MV, Sánchez V, Sanders ME, Cook RS, Pilkinton MA, Mallal SA, Wang K, Miller VA, Stephens PJ, Yelensky R, Doimi FD, Gómez H, Ryzhov SV, Darcy PK, Arteaga CL, Balko JM (2016) Clin Cancer Res 22(6): 1499-509
    › Primary publication · 26515496 (PubMed) · PMC4794351 (PubMed Central)
  27. Kinome-wide functional screen identifies role of PLK1 in hormone-independent, ER-positive breast cancer. Bhola NE, Jansen VM, Bafna S, Giltnane JM, Balko JM, Estrada MV, Meszoely I, Mayer I, Abramson V, Ye F, Sanders M, Dugger TC, Allen EV, Arteaga CL (2015) Cancer Res 75(2): 405-14
    › Primary publication · 25480943 (PubMed) · PMC4297507 (PubMed Central)
  28. PIK3CA mutations in Peruvian patients with HER2-amplified and triple negative non-metastatic breast cancers. Castaneda CA, Lopez-Ilasaca M, Pinto JA, Chirinos-Arias M, Doimi F, Neciosup SP, Rojas KI, Vidaurre T, Balko JM, Arteaga CL, Gomez HL (2014) Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 7(4): 142-8
    › Primary publication · 25467032 (PubMed)
  29. LYN-activating mutations mediate antiestrogen resistance in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Schwarz LJ, Fox EM, Balko JM, Garrett JT, Kuba MG, Estrada MV, González-Angulo AM, Mills GB, Red-Brewer M, Mayer IA, Abramson V, Rizzo M, Kelley MC, Meszoely IM, Arteaga CL (2014) J Clin Invest 124(12): 5490-502
    › Primary publication · 25401474 (PubMed) · PMC4348968 (PubMed Central)
  30. P-REX1 creates a positive feedback loop to activate growth factor receptor, PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK signaling in breast cancer. Dillon LM, Bean JR, Yang W, Shee K, Symonds LK, Balko JM, McDonald WH, Liu S, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Mills GB, Arteaga CL, Miller TW (2015) Oncogene 34(30): 3968-76
    › Primary publication · 25284585 (PubMed) · PMC4387124 (PubMed Central)
  31. Dual specificity phosphatase 4 gene expression in association with triple-negative breast cancer outcome. Baglia ML, Cai Q, Zheng Y, Wu J, Su Y, Ye F, Bao PP, Cai H, Zhao Z, Balko J, Zheng W, Lu W, Shu XO (2014) Breast Cancer Res Treat 148(1): 211-20
    › Primary publication · 25281216 (PubMed) · PMC4200532 (PubMed Central)
  32. Efferocytosis produces a prometastatic landscape during postpartum mammary gland involution. Stanford JC, Young C, Hicks D, Owens P, Williams A, Vaught DB, Morrison MM, Lim J, Williams M, Brantley-Sieders DM, Balko JM, Tonetti D, Earp HS, Cook RS (2014) J Clin Invest 124(11): 4737-52
    › Primary publication · 25250573 (PubMed) · PMC4347249 (PubMed Central)
  33. Rationale for targeting the Ras/MAPK pathway in triple-negative breast cancer. Giltnane JM, Balko JM (2014) Discov Med 17(95): 275-83
    › Primary publication · 24882719 (PubMed)
  34. Enabling a genetically informed approach to cancer medicine: a retrospective evaluation of the impact of comprehensive tumor profiling using a targeted next-generation sequencing panel. Johnson DB, Dahlman KH, Knol J, Gilbert J, Puzanov I, Means-Powell J, Balko JM, Lovly CM, Murphy BA, Goff LW, Abramson VG, Crispens MA, Mayer IA, Berlin JD, Horn L, Keedy VL, Reddy NM, Arteaga CL, Sosman JA, Pao W (2014) Oncologist 19(6): 616-22
    › Primary publication · 24797823 (PubMed) · PMC4041676 (PubMed Central)
  35. Stand up to cancer phase Ib study of pan-phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitor buparlisib with letrozole in estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. Mayer IA, Abramson VG, Isakoff SJ, Forero A, Balko JM, Kuba MG, Sanders ME, Yap JT, Van den Abbeele AD, Li Y, Cantley LC, Winer E, Arteaga CL (2014) J Clin Oncol 32(12): 1202-9
    › Primary publication · 24663045 (PubMed) · PMC3986383 (PubMed Central)
  36. Emergence of constitutively active estrogen receptor-α mutations in pretreated advanced estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Jeselsohn R, Yelensky R, Buchwalter G, Frampton G, Meric-Bernstam F, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Ferrer-Lozano J, Perez-Fidalgo JA, Cristofanilli M, Gómez H, Arteaga CL, Giltnane J, Balko JM, Cronin MT, Jarosz M, Sun J, Hawryluk M, Lipson D, Otto G, Ross JS, Dvir A, Soussan-Gutman L, Wolf I, Rubinek T, Gilmore L, Schnitt S, Come SE, Pusztai L, Stephens P, Brown M, Miller VA (2014) Clin Cancer Res 20(7): 1757-1767
    › Primary publication · 24398047 (PubMed) · PMC3998833 (PubMed Central)
  37. Molecular profiling of the residual disease of triple-negative breast cancers after neoadjuvant chemotherapy identifies actionable therapeutic targets. Balko JM, Giltnane JM, Wang K, Schwarz LJ, Young CD, Cook RS, Owens P, Sanders ME, Kuba MG, Sánchez V, Kurupi R, Moore PD, Pinto JA, Doimi FD, Gómez H, Horiuchi D, Goga A, Lehmann BD, Bauer JA, Pietenpol JA, Ross JS, Palmer GA, Yelensky R, Cronin M, Miller VA, Stephens PJ, Arteaga CL (2014) Cancer Discov 4(2): 232-45
    › Primary publication · 24356096 (PubMed) · PMC3946308 (PubMed Central)
  38. ErbB3 downregulation enhances luminal breast tumor response to antiestrogens. Morrison MM, Hutchinson K, Williams MM, Stanford JC, Balko JM, Young C, Kuba MG, Sánchez V, Williams AJ, Hicks DJ, Arteaga CL, Prat A, Perou CM, Earp HS, Massarweh S, Cook RS (2013) J Clin Invest 123(10): 4329-43
    › Primary publication · 23999432 (PubMed) · PMC3784526 (PubMed Central)
  39. Activation of MAPK pathways due to DUSP4 loss promotes cancer stem cell-like phenotypes in basal-like breast cancer. Balko JM, Schwarz LJ, Bhola NE, Kurupi R, Owens P, Miller TW, Gómez H, Cook RS, Arteaga CL (2013) Cancer Res 73(20): 6346-58
    › Primary publication · 23966295 (PubMed) · PMC4090144 (PubMed Central)
  40. Mutant PIK3CA accelerates HER2-driven transgenic mammary tumors and induces resistance to combinations of anti-HER2 therapies. Hanker AB, Pfefferle AD, Balko JM, Kuba MG, Young CD, Sánchez V, Sutton CR, Cheng H, Perou CM, Zhao JJ, Cook RS, Arteaga CL (2013) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(35): 14372-7
    › Primary publication · 23940356 (PubMed) · PMC3761610 (PubMed Central)
  41. The genomic map of breast cancer: which roads lead to better targeted therapies? Balko JM, Stricker TP, Arteaga CL (2013) Breast Cancer Res 15(4): 209
    › Primary publication · 23905624 (PubMed) · PMC3979080 (PubMed Central)
  42. Lactate dehydrogenase B: a metabolic marker of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. Dennison JB, Molina JR, Mitra S, González-Angulo AM, Balko JM, Kuba MG, Sanders ME, Pinto JA, Gómez HL, Arteaga CL, Brown RE, Mills GB (2013) Clin Cancer Res 19(13): 3703-13
    › Primary publication · 23697991 (PubMed) · PMC3727144 (PubMed Central)
  43. Conditional loss of ErbB3 delays mammary gland hyperplasia induced by mutant PIK3CA without affecting mammary tumor latency, gene expression, or signaling. Young CD, Pfefferle AD, Owens P, Kuba MG, Rexer BN, Balko JM, Sánchez V, Cheng H, Perou CM, Zhao JJ, Cook RS, Arteaga CL (2013) Cancer Res 73(13): 4075-85
    › Primary publication · 23633485 (PubMed) · PMC3702683 (PubMed Central)
  44. TGF-β inhibition enhances chemotherapy action against triple-negative breast cancer. Bhola NE, Balko JM, Dugger TC, Kuba MG, Sánchez V, Sanders M, Stanford J, Cook RS, Arteaga CL (2013) J Clin Invest 123(3): 1348-58
    › Primary publication · 23391723 (PubMed) · PMC3582135 (PubMed Central)
  45. Discordant cellular response to presurgical letrozole in bilateral synchronous ER+ breast cancers with a KRAS mutation or FGFR1 gene amplification. Balko JM, Mayer IA, Sanders ME, Miller TW, Kuba MG, Meszoely IM, Wagle N, Garraway LA, Arteaga CL (2012) Mol Cancer Ther 11(10): 2301-5
    › Primary publication · 22879364 (PubMed) · PMC3682668 (PubMed Central)
  46. Profiling of residual breast cancers after neoadjuvant chemotherapy identifies DUSP4 deficiency as a mechanism of drug resistance. Balko JM, Cook RS, Vaught DB, Kuba MG, Miller TW, Bhola NE, Sanders ME, Granja-Ingram NM, Smith JJ, Meszoely IM, Salter J, Dowsett M, Stemke-Hale K, González-Angulo AM, Mills GB, Pinto JA, Gómez HL, Arteaga CL (2012) Nat Med 18(7): 1052-9
    › Primary publication · 22683778 (PubMed) · PMC3693569 (PubMed Central)
  47. Molecular signatures of lung cancer: defining new diagnostic and therapeutic paradigms. Balko JM, Arteaga CL (2012) Mol Diagn Ther 16(1): 1-6
    › Primary publication · 22339590 (PubMed)
  48. The receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB3 maintains the balance between luminal and basal breast epithelium. Balko JM, Miller TW, Morrison MM, Hutchinson K, Young C, Rinehart C, Sánchez V, Jee D, Polyak K, Prat A, Perou CM, Arteaga CL, Cook RS (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(1): 221-6
    › Primary publication · 22178756 (PubMed) · PMC3252958 (PubMed Central)
  49. Oncogenic Ras and B-Raf proteins positively regulate death receptor 5 expression through co-activation of ERK and JNK signaling. Oh YT, Yue P, Zhou W, Balko JM, Black EP, Owonikoko TK, Khuri FR, Sun SY (2012) J Biol Chem 287(1): 257-267
    › Primary publication · 22065586 (PubMed) · PMC3249076 (PubMed Central)
  50. ERα-dependent E2F transcription can mediate resistance to estrogen deprivation in human breast cancer. Miller TW, Balko JM, Fox EM, Ghazoui Z, Dunbier A, Anderson H, Dowsett M, Jiang A, Smith RA, Maira SM, Manning HC, González-Angulo AM, Mills GB, Higham C, Chanthaphaychith S, Kuba MG, Miller WR, Shyr Y, Arteaga CL (2011) Cancer Discov 1(4): 338-51
    › Primary publication · 22049316 (PubMed) · PMC3204388 (PubMed Central)
  51. A microRNA gene expression signature predicts response to erlotinib in epithelial cancer cell lines and targets EMT. Bryant JL, Britson J, Balko JM, Willian M, Timmons R, Frolov A, Black EP (2012) Br J Cancer 106(1): 148-56
    › Primary publication · 22045191 (PubMed) · PMC3251842 (PubMed Central)
  52. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and antiestrogen resistance in breast cancer. Miller TW, Balko JM, Arteaga CL (2011) J Clin Oncol 29(33): 4452-61
    › Primary publication · 22010023 (PubMed) · PMC3221526 (PubMed Central)
  53. A kinome-wide screen identifies the insulin/IGF-I receptor pathway as a mechanism of escape from hormone dependence in breast cancer. Fox EM, Miller TW, Balko JM, Kuba MG, Sánchez V, Smith RA, Liu S, González-Angulo AM, Mills GB, Ye F, Shyr Y, Manning HC, Buck E, Arteaga CL (2011) Cancer Res 71(21): 6773-84
    › Primary publication · 21908557 (PubMed) · PMC3206206 (PubMed Central)
  54. A gene expression signature from human breast cancer cells with acquired hormone independence identifies MYC as a mediator of antiestrogen resistance. Miller TW, Balko JM, Ghazoui Z, Dunbier A, Anderson H, Dowsett M, González-Angulo AM, Mills GB, Miller WR, Wu H, Shyr Y, Arteaga CL (2011) Clin Cancer Res 17(7): 2024-34
    › Primary publication · 21346144 (PubMed) · PMC3221728 (PubMed Central)
  55. Trastuzumab has preferential activity against breast cancers driven by HER2 homodimers. Ghosh R, Narasanna A, Wang SE, Liu S, Chakrabarty A, Balko JM, González-Angulo AM, Mills GB, Penuel E, Winslow J, Sperinde J, Dua R, Pidaparthi S, Mukherjee A, Leitzel K, Kostler WJ, Lipton A, Bates M, Arteaga CL (2011) Cancer Res 71(5): 1871-82
    › Primary publication · 21324925 (PubMed) · PMC3221734 (PubMed Central)
  56. Do the genes tell us the path of most resistance? Balko JM, Black EP (2011) Cancer Biol Ther 11(2): 213-5
    › Primary publication · 21263213 (PubMed)
  57. Dead-box or black-box: is DDX1 a potential biomarker in breast cancer? Balko JM, Arteaga CL (2011) Breast Cancer Res Treat 127(1): 65-7
    › Primary publication · 20694745 (PubMed)
  58. Deregulation of DUSP activity in EGFR-mutant lung cancer cell lines contributes to sustained ERK1/2 signaling. Britson JS, Barton F, Balko JM, Black EP (2009) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 390(3): 849-54
    › Primary publication · 19836351 (PubMed)
  59. MUC1 is a downstream target of STAT3 and regulates lung cancer cell survival and invasion. Gao J, McConnell MJ, Yu B, Li J, Balko JM, Black EP, Johnson JO, Lloyd MC, Altiok S, Haura EB (2009) Int J Oncol 35(2): 337-45
    › Primary publication · 19578748 (PubMed) · PMC4098131 (PubMed Central)
  60. A gene expression predictor of response to EGFR-targeted therapy stratifies progression-free survival to cetuximab in KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer. Balko JM, Black EP (2009) BMC Cancer : 145
    › Primary publication · 19439077 (PubMed) · PMC2687459 (PubMed Central)
  61. Intratumoral delivery of Paclitaxel in solid tumor from biodegradable hyaluronan nanoparticle formulations. Al-Ghananeem AM, Malkawi AH, Muammer YM, Balko JM, Black EP, Mourad W, Romond E (2009) AAPS PharmSciTech 10(2): 410-7
    › Primary publication · 19381833 (PubMed) · PMC2690785 (PubMed Central)
  62. MEK and EGFR inhibition demonstrate synergistic activity in EGFR-dependent NSCLC. Balko JM, Jones BR, Coakley VL, Black EP (2009) Cancer Biol Ther 8(6): 522-30
    › Primary publication · 19305165 (PubMed)
  63. Ovarian carcinoma as a surrogate tumor for lung adenocarcinomas in evaluating the chemo-stability of a gene expression signature. Balko JM, Black EP (2009) Cancer Biol Ther 8(2): 167-73
    › Primary publication · 19029813 (PubMed)
  64. Gene expression patterns that predict sensitivity to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung cancer cell lines and human lung tumors. Balko JM, Potti A, Saunders C, Stromberg A, Haura EB, Black EP (2006) BMC Genomics : 289
    › Primary publication · 17096850 (PubMed) · PMC1660550 (PubMed Central)