The major interest of the laboratory is the assembly and secretion of plasma very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) by the liver. VLDL transport triglyceride to peripheral tissues for storage and/or utilization. They are the sole precursors of plasma low density lipoproteins (LDL), which have been positively correlated with risk for atherosclerotic heart disease. The assembly of VLDL is a complex process which is initiated in the rough ER, but the steps in the association of apolipoprotein (apo) B, an extremely hydrophobic protein and the major structural protein of VLDL, with lipid are unclear. The goal of our work is to define the steps in the assembly process specifically the mechanisms by which lipid is added to the maturing particle.

A second area of research in our laboratory focuses on apoE, a protein associated with nearly all plasma lipoprotein classes. ApoE mediates the uptake of a number of lipoprotein classes via receptors on the cell surface. It is our hypothesis that some apoE escapes degradation and is recycled, i.e., re-secreted from the cell. Our studies are designed to investigate cell entry points required for recycling, the intracellular pathways involved in recycling, and the physiologic relevance of this process.


The following timeline graph is generated from all co-authored publications.

Featured publications are shown below:

  1. Identification of a Novel Transcript and Regulatory Mechanism for Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein. Suzuki T, Brown JJ, Swift LL (2016) PLoS One 11(1): e0147252
    › Primary publication · 26771188 (PubMed) · PMC4714884 (PubMed Central)
  2. Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein (MTP) Associates with Cytosolic Lipid Droplets in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes. Love JD, Suzuki T, Robinson DB, Harris CM, Johnson JE, Mohler PJ, Jerome WG, Swift LL (2015) PLoS One 10(8): e0135598
    › Primary publication · 26267806 (PubMed) · PMC4534446 (PubMed Central)
  3. Effects of Habitat Complexity on Pair-Housed Zebrafish. Keck VA, Edgerton DS, Hajizadeh S, Swift LL, Dupont WD, Lawrence C, Boyd KL (2015) J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 54(4): 378-83
    › Primary publication · 26224437 (PubMed) · PMC4521571 (PubMed Central)
  4. Free fatty acids are associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance but not inflammation in systemic lupus erythematosus. Ormseth MJ, Swift LL, Fazio S, Linton MF, Raggi P, Solus JF, Oeser A, Bian A, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Stein CM (2013) Lupus 22(1): 26-33
    › Primary publication · 23060481 (PubMed) · PMC3684362 (PubMed Central)
  5. Free fatty acids are associated with insulin resistance but not coronary artery atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis. Ormseth MJ, Swift LL, Fazio S, Linton MF, Chung CP, Raggi P, Rho YH, Solus J, Oeser A, Bian A, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Stein CM (2011) Atherosclerosis 219(2): 869-74
    › Primary publication · 21974844 (PubMed) · PMC3226875 (PubMed Central)
  6. Age-independent, gray matter-localized, brain-enhanced oxidative stress in male fischer 344 rats: brain levels of F(2)-isoprostanes and F(4)-neuroprostanes. Youssef JA, Birnbaum LS, Swift LL, Morrow JD, Badr MZ (2003) Free Radic Biol Med 34(12): 1631-5
    › Primary publication · 12788483 (PubMed)
  7. Pantothenic acid: an organ-specific pro-oxidant vitamin. Brain and liver neuroprostane levels in rats fed a pantothenic acid-deficient diet. Youssef J, Davis A, Roberts LJ, Swift LL, Morrow JD, Badr M (2002) Adv Exp Med Biol : 551-5
    › Primary publication · 12664639 (PubMed)
  8. Plasma and urine riboflavin during riboflavin-free nutrition in very-low-birth-weight infants. Porcelli PJ, Rosser ML, DelPaggio D, Adcock EW, Swift L, Greene H (2000) J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 31(2): 142-8
    › Primary publication · 10941965 (PubMed)
  9. Fatal fat embolism syndrome in a child with undiagnosed hemoglobin S/beta+ thalassemia: a complication of acute parvovirus B19 infection. Kolquist KA, Vnencak-Jones CL, Swift L, Page DL, Johnson JE, Denison MR (1996) Pediatr Pathol Lab Med 16(1): 71-82
    › Primary publication · 8963632 (PubMed)
  10. Plasma and urine riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations in enterally fed very-low-birth-weight neonates. Porcelli PJ, Adcock EW, DelPaggio D, Swift LL, Greene HL (1996) J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 23(2): 141-6
    › Primary publication · 8856580 (PubMed)
  11. Nutrition and physical activity program to attenuate obesity and promote physical and metabolic fitness in elementary school children. Donnelly JE, Jacobsen DJ, Whatley JE, Hill JO, Swift LL, Cherrington A, Polk B, Tran ZV, Reed G (1996) Obes Res 4(3): 229-43
    › Primary publication · 8732957 (PubMed)
  12. Lipid accumulation and body fat distribution is influenced by type of dietary fat fed to rats. Hill JO, Peters JC, Lin D, Yakubu F, Greene H, Swift L (1993) Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 17(4): 223-36
    › Primary publication · 8387971 (PubMed)
  13. Isolation and characterization of hepatic Golgi lipoproteins from hypercholesterolemic rats. Swift LL, Manowitz NR, Dunn GD, LeQuire VS (1980) J Clin Invest 66(3): 415-25
    › Primary publication · 7400323 (PubMed) · PMC371668 (PubMed Central)
  14. A generalized membrane defect in heritable myotonia: studies of erythrocytes in an animal model and patients. Atkinson JB, Swift LL, Lankford PG, LeQuire VS (1980) Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 163(1): 69-75
    › Primary publication · 7352149 (PubMed)
  15. Elevated cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in an adult patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Reduction by a high glucose diet. Stacpoole PW, Grundy SM, Swift LL, Greene HL, Slonim AE, Burr IM (1981) J Clin Invest 68(5): 1166-71
    › Primary publication · 7298845 (PubMed) · PMC370910 (PubMed Central)
  16. Characterization of the hyperlipidemia in guinea pigs induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Swift LL, Gasiewicz TA, Dunn GD, Soulé PD, Neal RA (1981) Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 59(3): 489-99
    › Primary publication · 7268772 (PubMed)
  17. Myotonia congenita. A histochemical and ultrastructural study in the goat: comparison with abnormalities found in human myotonia dystrophica. Atkinson JB, Swift LL, Lequire VS (1981) Am J Pathol 102(3): 324-35
    › Primary publication · 7212017 (PubMed) · PMC1903708 (PubMed Central)
  18. Erythrocytes in Duchenne dystrophy. Atkinson JB, Swift LL, LeQuire VS (1981) Neurology 31(3): 364-5
    › Primary publication · 7193834 (PubMed)
  19. Hepatic Golgi lipoproteins: precursors to plasma lipoproteins in hypercholesterolemic rats. Swift LL, Soulé PD, LeQuire VS (1982) J Lipid Res 23(7): 962-71
    › Primary publication · 7142818 (PubMed)
  20. Morphologic abnormalities of erythrocytes from patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Atkinson JB, Stacpoole PW, Swift LL (1982) Biochim Biophys Acta 712(1): 211-6
    › Primary publication · 7115746 (PubMed)
  21. Cholesterol reduction by a high-glucose diet in a patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. A preliminary report. Stacpoole PW, Swift LL, Greene HL, Slonim AE, Younger RK, Burr IM (1982) Am J Med 72(6): 889-93
    › Primary publication · 7091159 (PubMed)
  22. Intestinal lipoprotein synthesis. Comparison of nascent Golgi lipoproteins from chow-fed and hypercholesterolemic rats. Swift LL, Soulé PD, Gray ME, LeQuire VS (1984) J Lipid Res 25(1): 1-13
    › Primary publication · 6707517 (PubMed)
  23. Electron paramagnetic resonance and saturation transfer electron paramagnetic resonance studies on erythrocytes from goats with and without heritable myotonia. Swift LL, Atkinson JB, Perkins RC, Dalton LR, LeQuire VS (1980) J Membr Biol 52(2): 165-72
    › Primary publication · 6245217 (PubMed)
  24. Nascent lipoproteins from recirculating and nonrecirculating liver perfusions and from the hepatic Golgi apparatus of African green monkeys. Johnson FL, Swift LL, Rudel LL (1987) J Lipid Res 28(5): 549-64
    › Primary publication · 3598398 (PubMed)
  25. Differential labeling of rat hepatic Golgi and serum very low density lipoprotein apoprotein B variants. Swift LL, Padley RJ, Getz GS (1987) J Lipid Res 28(2): 207-15
    › Primary publication · 3572248 (PubMed)
  26. Plasma riboflavin concentrations in infants fed human milk versus formula: comparison with values in rats made riboflavin deficient and human cord blood. Greene HL, Specker BL, Smith R, Murrell J, Swift L (1990) J Pediatr 117(6): 916-20
    › Primary publication · 2246692 (PubMed)
  27. The effects of clonidine hydrochloride versus atenolol monotherapy on serum lipids, lipid subfractions, and apolipoproteins in mild hypertension. Houston MC, Burger C, Hays JT, Nadeau J, Swift L, Bradley CA, Olafsson L (1990) Am Heart J 120(1): 172-9
    › Primary publication · 2193493 (PubMed)
  28. Intravenous vitamins for very-low-birth-weight infants. Greene HL, Smith R, Pollack P, Murrell J, Caudill M, Swift L (1991) J Am Coll Nutr 10(4): 281-8
    › Primary publication · 1910062 (PubMed)
  29. Arachidonic acid epoxygenase: structural characterization and quantification of epoxyeicosatrienoates in plasma. Karara A, Wei S, Spady D, Swift L, Capdevila JH, Falck JR (1992) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 182(3): 1320-5
    › Primary publication · 1540175 (PubMed)
  30. Vitamins for newborn infant formulas: a review of recommendations with emphasis on data from low birth-weight infants. Greene HL, Porchelli P, Adcock E, Swift L (1992) Eur J Clin Nutr : S1-8
    › Primary publication · 1286643 (PubMed)
  31. Intracellular granules of the renal medulla in a case of potassium depletion due to renal potassium wasting. Electron microscopic comparison with renal medullary granules in the potassium-depleted rat. France R, Gray ME, Stone WJ, Swift LL (1978) Am J Pathol 91(2): 299-312
    › Primary publication · 565595 (PubMed) · PMC2018195 (PubMed Central)
  32. Reduction of serum cholesterol in two patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia by dichloroacetate. Moore GW, Swift LL, Rabinowitz D, Crofford OB, Oates JA, Stacpoole PW (1979) Atherosclerosis 33(3): 285-93
    › Primary publication · 486225 (PubMed)
  33. The effects of ACTH on lung maturation in fetal lambs. Sundell HW, Gray ME, Relier JP, Kovar IZ, Catterton WZ, Swift LL, Stahlman MT (1979) Am J Pathol 97(2): 393-410
    › Primary publication · 230741 (PubMed) · PMC2042466 (PubMed Central)
  34. Erythrocyte membrane abnormalities in Duchenne muscular dystrophy monitored by saturation transfer electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Wilkerson LS, Perkins RC, Roelofs R, Swift L, Dalton LR, Park JH (1978) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 75(2): 838-41
    › Primary publication · 204936 (PubMed) · PMC411352 (PubMed Central)
  35. Alterations in plasma lipid concentrations in normal and hyperlipidemic patients with morbid obesity before and after jejunoileal bypass. Scott HW, Dean RH, LeQuire V, Swift LL, Younger RK, Butts WH (1978) Am J Surg 135(3): 341-7
    › Primary publication · 204211 (PubMed)
  36. The composition and calcium transport activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum from goats with and without heritable myotonia. Swift LL, Atkinson JB, LeQuire VS (1979) Lab Invest 40(3): 384-90
    › Primary publication · 106184 (PubMed)