Metformin reduces liver glucose production by inhibition of fructose-1-6-bisphosphatase. Hunter RW, Hughey CC, Lantier L, Sundelin EI, Peggie M, Zeqiraj E, Sicheri F, Jessen N, Wasserman DH, Sakamoto K (2018) Nat Med 24: 1395-1406 Hepatic glycogen can regulate hypoglycemic counterregulation via a liver-brain axis. Winnick JJ, Kraft G, Gregory JM, Edgerton DS, Williams P, Hajizadeh IA, Kamal MZ, Smith M, Farmer B, Scott M, Neal D, Donahue EP, Allen E, Cherrington AD (2016) J Clin Invest 126: 2236-48 Portal vein glucose entry triggers a coordinated cellular response that potentiates hepatic glucose uptake and storage in normal but not high-fat/high-fructose-fed dogs. Coate KC, Kraft G, Irimia JM, Smith MS, Farmer B, Neal DW, Roach PJ, Shiota M, Cherrington AD (2013) Diabetes 62: 392-400 Hepatic glycogen supercompensation activates AMP-activated protein kinase, impairs insulin signaling, and reduces glycogen deposition in the liver. Winnick JJ, An Z, Ramnanan CJ, Smith M, Irimia JM, Neal DW, Moore MC, Roach PJ, Cherrington AD (2011) Diabetes 60: 398-407 Inclusion of low amounts of fructose with an intraduodenal glucose load markedly reduces postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in the conscious dog. Shiota M, Moore MC, Galassetti P, Monohan M, Neal DW, Shulman GI, Cherrington AD (2002) Diabetes 51: 469-78 Small amounts of fructose markedly augment net hepatic glucose uptake in the conscious dog. Shiota M, Galassetti P, Monohan M, Neal DW, Cherrington AD (1998) Diabetes 47: 867-73 Hepatic glucose metabolism in late pregnancy: normal versus high-fat and -fructose diet. Coate KC, Smith MS, Shiota M, Irimia JM, Roach PJ, Farmer B, Williams PE, Moore MC (2013) Diabetes 62: 753-61 Acute fructose administration improves oral glucose tolerance in adults with type 2 diabetes. Moore MC, Davis SN, Mann SL, Cherrington AD (2001) Diabetes Care 24: 1882-7 Acute fructose administration decreases the glycemic response to an oral glucose tolerance test in normal adults. Moore MC, Cherrington AD, Mann SL, Davis SN (2000) J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85: 4515-9 Different functional domains of GLUT2 glucose transporter are required for glucose affinity and substrate specificity. Wu L, Fritz JD, Powers AC (1998) Endocrinology 139: 4205-12 Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 is regulated by glucose at the transcriptional level. Hasty AH, Shimano H, Yahagi N, Amemiya-Kudo M, Perrey S, Yoshikawa T, Osuga J, Okazaki H, Tamura Y, Iizuka Y, Shionoiri F, Ohashi K, Harada K, Gotoda T, Nagai R, Ishibashi S, Yamada N (2000) J Biol Chem 275: 31069-77 Effects of fructose on hepatic glucose metabolism. McGuinness OP, Cherrington AD (2003) Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 6: 441-8 Impact of chronic fructose infusion on hepatic metabolism during TPN administration. Donmoyer CM, Lacy DB, Zhang Y, Chen SS, McGuinness OP (2002) Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 283: E1151-8 Chronic consumption of a high-fat/high-fructose diet renders the liver incapable of net hepatic glucose uptake. Coate KC, Scott M, Farmer B, Moore MC, Smith M, Roop J, Neal DW, Williams P, Cherrington AD (2010) Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 299: E887-98 Hepatic glucose uptake and disposition during short-term high-fat vs. high-fructose feeding. Coate KC, Kraft G, Moore MC, Smith MS, Ramnanan C, Irimia JM, Roach PJ, Farmer B, Neal DW, Williams P, Cherrington AD (2014) Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 307: E151-60 A physiological increase in the hepatic glycogen level does not affect the response of net hepatic glucose uptake to insulin. Winnick JJ, An Z, Moore MC, Ramnanan CJ, Farmer B, Shiota M, Cherrington AD (2009) Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297: E358-66 Inclusion of low amounts of fructose with an intraportal glucose load increases net hepatic glucose uptake in the presence of relative insulin deficiency in dog. Shiota M, Galassetti P, Igawa K, Neal DW, Cherrington AD (2005) Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 288: E1160-7 Fructose augments infection-impaired net hepatic glucose uptake during TPN administration. Donmoyer CM, Ejiofor J, Lacy DB, Chen SS, McGuinness OP (2001) Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 280: E703-11 A high-fat, high-fructose diet accelerates nutrient absorption and impairs net hepatic glucose uptake in response to a mixed meal in partially pancreatectomized dogs. Coate KC, Kraft G, Lautz M, Smith M, Neal DW, Cherrington AD (2011) J Nutr 141: 1643-51 Cytotoxic mechanisms of hydrosulfide anion and cyanide anion in primary rat hepatocyte cultures. Thompson RW, Valentine HL, Valentine WM (2003) Toxicology 188: 149-59 A chemically programmed antibody is a long-lasting and potent inhibitor of influenza neuraminidase. Hayakawa M, Toda N, Carrillo N, Thornburg NJ, Crowe JE, Barbas CF (2012) Chembiochem 13: 2191-5 Reaction of trichloroethylene oxide with proteins and dna: instability of adducts and modulation of functions. Cai H, Guengerich FP (2001) Chem Res Toxicol 14: 54-61 Regulation of hepatic glucose uptake and storage in vivo. Moore MC, Coate KC, Winnick JJ, An Z, Cherrington AD (2012) Adv Nutr 3: 286-94 Continuous low-dose fructose infusion does not reverse glucagon-mediated decrease in hepatic glucose utilization. Johnson PM, Chen SS, Santomango TS, Williams PE, Lacy DB, McGuinness OP (2011) Metabolism 60: 867-73 New algorithms and an in silico benchmark for computational enzyme design. Zanghellini A, Jiang L, Wollacott AM, Cheng G, Meiler J, Althoff EA, Röthlisberger D, Baker D (2006) Protein Sci 15: 2785-94 Electronic medical records and genomics (eMERGE) network exploration in cataract: several new potential susceptibility loci. Ritchie MD, Verma SS, Hall MA, Goodloe RJ, Berg RL, Carrell DS, Carlson CS, Chen L, Crosslin DR, Denny JC, Jarvik G, Li R, Linneman JG, Pathak J, Peissig P, Rasmussen LV, Ramirez AH, Wang X, Wilke RA, Wolf WA, Torstenson ES, Turner SD, McCarty CA (2014) Mol Vis 20: 1281-95 Acute myopia and angle closure glaucoma from topiramate in a seven-year-old: a case report and review of the literature. Rapoport Y, Benegas N, Kuchtey RW, Joos KM (2014) BMC Pediatr 14: 96
Hints: (1) double-click or double-tap to navigate to a node. (2) Grab a node and move it to arrange the graph.