Treatment strategies other than surgery for pulmonary metastases are needed to improve disease-free and overall survival. Surgical attempts to solve a biologic problem by mechanical means. Alternative treatment may include induction or adjuvant chemotherapy, lung perfusion or regional drug delivery, biologic therapies (inhaled IL-2, biologic modifiers), and potentially, molecular or genetic therapy. Experimental radiofrequency ablation techniques are rarely applicable. Combinations of resection of macrometastases with treatment of occult micrometastases may be best in improving disease-free and overall survival.
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