The effects of motorcycle exhaust (ME) on cytochrome P-450 (P-450)-dependent monooxygenases were determined using rats exposed to the exhaust by either inhalation, intratracheal, or intraperitoneal administration. A 4-wk ME inhalation significantly increased benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylation, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation, and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activities in liver, kidney, and lung microsomes. Intratracheal instillation of organic extracts of ME particulate (MEP) caused a dose- and time-dependent significant increase of monooxygenase activity. Intratracheal treatment with 0.1 g MEP extract/kg markedly elevated benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylation and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activities in the rat tissues 24 h following treatment. Intraperitoneal treatment with 0.5 g MEP extract/kg/d for 4 d resulted in significant increases of P-450 and cytochrome b5 contents and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity in liver microsomes. The intraperitoneal treatment also markedly increased monooxygenases activities toward methoxyresorufin, aniline, benzphetamine, and erythromycin in liver and benzo[a]pyrene and 7-ethoxyresorufin in liver, kidney, and lung. Immunoblotting analyses of microsomal proteins using a mouse monoclonal antibody (Mab) 1-12-3 against rat P-450 1A1 revealed that ME inhalation, MEP intratracheal, or MEP intraperitoneal treatment increased a P-450 1A protein in the hepatic and extrahepatic tissues. Protein blots analyzed using antibodies to P-450 enzymes showed that MEP intraperitoneal treatment caused increases of P-450 2B, 2E, and 3A subfamily proteins in the liver. The ME inhalation, MEP intratracheal, or MEP intraperitoneal treatment resulted in significant increases in glutathione S-transferase activity in liver cytosols. The present study shows that ME and MEP extract contain substances that can induce multiple forms of P-450 and glutathione S-transferase activity in the rat.