Expansion of substrate specificity of cytochrome P450 2A6 by random and site-directed mutagenesis.

Wu ZL, Podust LM, Guengerich FP
J Biol Chem. 2005 280 (49): 41090-100

PMID: 16215230 · DOI:10.1074/jbc.M508182200

The natural product indole is a substrate for cytochrome P450 2A6. Mutagenesis of P450 2A6 was done to expand its capability in the oxidization of bulky substituted indole compounds, which are not substrates for the wild-type enzyme or the double mutant L240C/N297Q, as determined in our previous work (Wu, Z.-L., Aryal, P., Lozach, O., Meijer, L., and Guengerich, F. P. (2005) Chem. Biodivers. 2, 51-65). Error-prone PCR and site-directed mutagenesis led to the identification of two critical amino acid residue changes (N297Q and I300V) that achieve the purpose. The new mutant (N297Q/I300V) was able to oxidize both 4- and 5-benzyloxy(OBzl)indoles to form colored products. Both changes were required for oxidation of these bulky substrates. The colored product derived from 5-OBzl-indole was mainly 5,5'-di-OBzl-indirubin, whereas the dominant blue dye isolated upon incubations with 4-OBzl-indole was neither an indigo nor an indirubin. Two-dimensional NMR experiments led to assignment of the structure as 4-OBzl-2-(4'-OBzl-1',7'-dihydro-7'-oxo-6'H-indol-6'-ylidene)indolin-3-one, in which a pyrrole ring and a benzene ring are connected with a double bond instead of the pyrrole-pyrrole connection of other indigoids. Monomeric oxidation products were also isolated and characterized; three phenols (4-OBzl-1H-indol-5-ol, 4-OBzl-1H-indol-6-ol, and 4-OBzl-1H-indol-7-ol) and one quinone (4-OBzl-1H-indole-6,7-dione, the postulated immediate precursor of the final blue dye) were identified. The results are interpreted in the context of a crystal structure of a P450 2A6-coumarin complex. The I300V change opens an additional pocket to accommodate the OBzl bulk. The N2297Q change is postulated to generate a hydrogen bond between Gln and the substrate oxygen. Thus, the substrate specificity of P450 2A6 was expanded, and new products were obtained in this study.

MeSH Terms (20)

Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases Benzyl Compounds Binding Sites Coumarins Crystallization Cytochrome P-450 CYP2A6 Gene Library Humans Hydrogen Bonding Indoles Kinetics Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Mixed Function Oxygenases Models, Molecular Mutagenesis, Site-Directed Oxidation-Reduction Polymerase Chain Reaction Recombinant Proteins Structure-Activity Relationship Substrate Specificity

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